Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment
Date site proposed as SCI:2009-04
Date site confirmed as SCI: No data
Date site designated as SAC:2014-12
National legal reference of SAC designation:Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 572/2014, Αρ. 4839, 19.12.2014, Αριθμός 572Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 573/2014, Αρ. 4839, 19.12.2014, Αριθμός 573Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 293/2015, Αρ. 4890, 4.9.2015, Αριθμός 293


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1310  info      9.08  0.00 
1410  info      3.74  0.00 
1420  info      14.437  0.00 
5420  info      0.535  0.00 
92D0  info      4.81  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA168Actitis hypoleucos           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA056Anas clypeata           
BA052Anas crecca           
BA052Anas crecca           
BA050Anas penelope           
BA053Anas platyrhynchos           
BA055Anas querquedula           
BA055Anas querquedula           
F3019Anguilla anguilla      grids1x1           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA060Aythya nyroca           
BA060Aythya nyroca           
BA021Botaurus stellaris           
BA025Bubulcus ibis      45       
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus           
BA087Buteo buteo             
BA403Buteo rufinus     
BA149Calidris alpina           
BA147Calidris ferruginea           
BA145Calidris minuta           
BA145Calidris minuta           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA136Charadrius dubius           
BA196Chlidonias hybridus           
BA198Chlidonias leucopterus           
BA031Ciconia ciconia           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA103Falco peregrinus         
BA097Falco vespertinus    10       
BA603Francolinus francolinus    10  cmales       
BA125Fulica atra           
BA125Fulica atra           
BA153Gallinago gallinago           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA189Gelochelidon nilotica           
BA127Grus grus           
BA131Himantopus himantopus    10  40     
BA131Himantopus himantopus           
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA418Hoplopterus spinosus    40  90       
BA418Hoplopterus spinosus    10         
BA022Ixobrychus minutus           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA176Larus melanocephalus           
BA179Larus ridibundus           
BA156Limosa limosa           
BA272Luscinia svecica           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA058Netta rufina       
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo           
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
BA035Phoenicopterus ruber           
BA035Phoenicopterus ruber           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA032Plegadis falcinellus           
BA119Porzana porzana           
BA118Rallus aquaticus           
BA249Riparia riparia           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA195Sterna albifrons         
BA195Sterna albifrons    45   
BA193Sterna hirundo           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA164Tringa nebularia           
BA164Tringa nebularia           
BA165Tringa ochropus           
BA163Tringa stagnatilis           
BA162Tringa totanus           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA142Vanellus vanellus    10   
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1201Bufo viridis                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
1285Coluber nummifer                   
2019Crocidura russula cypria                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
2362Hyla savignyi                   
2466Malpolon monspessulanus                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                 
1212Rana ridibunda                   
2603Suncus etruscus                   
2010Vipera lebetina                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Limni Oroklinis is a shallow, brackish wetland formed on an area of marine deposits and is considered as a remnant of a once more extensive seasonal wetland of the low-lying coastal area of the surroundings of Larnaka town. It is located to the northeast of Larnaka town and to the south of Oroklini village. The north part of the site is bordered by the Larnaka-Agia Napa highway and the eastern margin is bounded by an access road for the highway. The area west of the site consists of cereal fields while to the southeast there is building development. The site covers an area of 53,47 ha of which about 7 % is water (mapped as water body) when fully flooded. It is possible that Ruppia maritima and Zannichellia palustris occur at the deepest parts of the flooded area; however, the occurrence of such athalassic tasselweed communities has not been confirmed.Generally, the marsh is dry during the summer months, though in rainy years it can hold water all year round. Three 2-metre-deep drainage channels contribute significantly to the drying-out of the site in the summer. A water pump exists for draining water from these channels to the nearby sea, though this has not been used for the last few years. In recent years, treated sewage water has occasionally been added to the site, augmenting water levels of the marsh. The southern part of the wetland is very shallow, generally less than 30 cm of water, even during the winter months while in the northern part the water is deeper.Geology: The site is primarily composed of recent terrace marine deposits (igneous and sedimentary gravelly sands-sandy gravels and sand with various proportions of cobbles), alluvial deposits (sandy clayey silts-silty sand) and lagoonal deposits consisting of loose to firm clay, silt and sand with organic matter. The bedrock of the broader area consists of chaki marls and sandy marls of the Nicosia Formation.Climate: The annual precipitation in the area ranges between 300-350 mm per year. The warmest period is between June-August and the mean daily maximum temperature of the hottest month (August) is 34 °C, while the mean daily minimum is 16 °C and the mean daily is 25 °C. The mean daily maximum temperature of the coldest month (February) is 18 °C, the mean daily minimum is 8 °C and the mean daily is 13 °C; the pluviothermic quotient Q2 is 39-45 thus the bioclimate is characterised as semi-arid to dry with warm winter.Vegetation: Halophilous scrub (1420) is the main vegetation in the wetland, characterised by communities of Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Suaeda vera, Inula crythmoides and, rarely, Suaeda aegyptiaca.Halophilous and halo-nitrophilous pioneer therophytic communities (1310) occur in seasonally flooded areas or in mosaics with the halophilous scrub and the salt meadows; they are composed of Salicornia europaea, Halopeplis amplexicaulis, Cressa cretica, Sphoenopus divaricatus, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Parapholis incurve, Plantago coronopus ssp. commutata, Spercularia marina, Hordeum marinum and Frankenia pulverulenda. The area of halophilous and halo-nitrophilous pioneer therophytic communities is subject to annual fluctuations according to the water level of the flooded area.Thermo-Mediterranean riparian galleries (Nerio-Tamariceteae, 92D0), dominated by Tamarix tetragyna, are generally confined to the east half of the site, where the water is deeper, and sometimes they occur in mosaics with the halophilous scrub.Salt meadows communities (1410) with Juncus subulatus, Juncus rigidus, Juncus hybridus and Aeluropus lagopoides occur at the margins of the wetland and on shallow places of the flooded area (southeast part) and in mosaics with halophilous scrub and halophilous pioneer therophytic communities, especially along the drainage channels.Phrygana formations (5420) with Noaea mucronata, Thymus capitatus, Fumana spp., Sarcopoterium spinosum, Asparagus stipularis and Phagnalon rupestre ssp. rupestre are restricted at a few patches along field banks; scattered Ziziphus lotus and Crataegus azarolus are also present.Reedbeds and sedgebeds (CY02), with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis are confined in two patches.Synanthropic vegetation (CY 14) colonises disturbed sites and is mainly composed of segetals and ruderals such as Atriplex rosea, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, Chenopodium spp., Centaurea hyalolepis, Cynodon dactylon, Ecballium elaterium, Sonchus oleraceus and the invasive aliens Oxalis pes-caprae and Atriplex semibaccata.Cultivations of cereals occupy a large part (c. 19%) to the west half of the site, whereas plantations with the exotic Acacia saligna are confined in two patches to the south east part

4.2 Quality and importance

Limni Oroklinis is one of the few wetland systems in the area controlled by Cyprus government, the third in size after Larnaka salt lakes and Limni Paralimniuou.The elements determining the ecological quality and importance of the site are:1) The presence of representative halophilous wetland habitat types, which in Cyprus have a restricted distribution and low cover.2) Suaeda aegypriaca is a rare species confined to the wider area of Larnaka-Oroklini, in salt marshes and margins of salt lakes; it is included in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus as an Endangered species and is threatened by habitat loss and degradation, due to tourism development and use and agricultural activities. In addition, five endemic plants have been recorded from the site. 3) Limni Oroklinis is one of only four sites in Cyprus where Himantopus himantopus is known to breed regularly, and indeed has developed into the prime wetland for the species in recent years, hosting more than 40 pairs in the spring of 2007. The marsh is also one of the five most important sites in Cyprus for Hoplopterus (Vanellus) spinosus. Limni Oroklinis was identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International in 2004 because of the breeding presence of these two waders. The marsh also hosts small breeding populations of another two Annex I species: Burhinus oedicnemus and Charadrius alexandrinus. The site is also an important migration stop-over point and wintering ground for a large number of migratory bird species (82 in total, including 30 Annex I and 53 migratory¬). The marsh is a good site for migrating Circus macrourus, Philomachus pugnax and Tringa glareola (all Annex I species). It is a good wintering site for Vanellus vanellus in particular and one of the best breeding sites for Motacilla flava on the Island.4) The vertebrate fauna of the site includes 21 endemic and/or protected taxa (7 mammals, 11 reptiles and 3 amphibians).Note: Crocidura russula cypria=Crocidura suaveolens cypria, Coluber jugularis=Dolichophis jugularis, Malpolon monspessulanus=Malpolon insignitus, Coluber nummifer=Hemorrhois nummifer, Lacerta laevis troodica=Phoenicolacerta troodica, Rana ridibunda = Pelophylax bedriagae.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Christodoulou C.S. 2002. Flora and Vegetation of Limni Oroklinis. Unpublished Document. Forestry Department, MANRE, Lefkosia. p. 3. [4.1, 4.2]Christodoulou C.S. 2008. Unpublished data. [3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2]Cyprus Bird Reports (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005), published by BirdLife Cyprus.Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.Lefkios Sergides (2006), Proposal for the Development of Oroklini Marsh. Report to BirdLife Cyprus.Meikle R.D. 1977, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vols 1 & 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Êew. p. 1969. [3.3]Tsintides T., Christodoulou C.S., Delipetrou P. & Georgiou K. (eds). 2007. The Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Lefkosia: Cyprus Forestry Association. ISBN 978-9963-9288-0-4. p. 468. [4.2]Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).Δεληπέτρου Π., Βαγιανού Φ., Τόρης Ν., Τζιωρτζιής Ι., Ιακωβίδης Ά., Μουσκουντής Μ., Παπαθεοδούλου Α., Φυττής Γ., Πίττα Ε., Κωνσταντίνου Κ., Γιανναπάς Μ., (2016), Έκθεση Ολοκλήρωσης της Σύμβασης με Αρ. Τ.Π. 26/2015 με τίτλο «Παρακολούθηση και επικαιροποίηση της Χαρτογράφησης και των Τυποποιημένων Έντυπων Δεδομένων, συμπλήρωση πρωτοκόλλων παρακολούθησης οικοτόπων και ειδών χλωρίδας των περιοχών του Δικτύου Natura 2000 «Άλυκος Ποταμός – Άγιος Σωζόμενος - CY2000002, Κοιλάδα Ποταμού Μαρούλλενας - CY2000010, Περιοχή Σκούλλη - CY4000009, Ξερός Ποταμός - CY4000007, Κοιλάδα Διαρίζου - CY4000003, Λίμνη Ορόκλινης - CY6000011 και Λίμνη Παραλιμνίου - CY3000008». I.A.CO Environmental & Water Consultants Ltd. +9 Παραδοτέα


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
CY05A/A 5676-100.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other A/A 5676-100.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

Part of wider, exetnsive game reserve area.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Environment

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Limni Oroklinis’

No, but in preparation



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