Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

B

1.2 Site code

GR2110001

1.3 Site name

AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI, KATO POUS ARACHTHOU, KAMPI FILIPPIADAS)

1.4 First Compilation date

1994-10

1.5 Update date

2016-12
Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:20.940532
Latitude:37.472419

2.2 Area [ha]

60155.5800

2.3 Marine area [%]

67.5000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR21Ipeiros
GR21Ipeiros
GR23Dytiki Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      0.00   
1120  info  X     0.00       
1130  info      0.00   
1150  info  X     8577.41  0.00 
1210  info      16.2278  0.00 
1310  info      326.51  0.00 
1410  info      1344.96  0.00 
1420  info      1878.86  0.00 
2110  info      4.96057  0.00 
3150  info      54.4294  0.00 
5210  info      0.294979  0.00 
5420  info      389.192  0.00 
91M0  info      125.933  0.00 
92A0  info      1.36701  0.00 
92D0  info      412.841  0.00 
9320  info      510.826  0.00 
9350  info      686.779  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
F1103Alosa fallax                 
F5312Cobitis arachthosensis           
F5337Economidichthys pygmaeus           
R1279Elaphe quatuorlineata           
R1293Elaphe situla           
R1220Emys orbicularis           
F5260Eudontomyzon graecus           
M1355Lutra lutra             
I1060Lycaena dispar           
R2373Mauremys rivulata           
F5279Pelasgus thesproticus           
F5334Telestes pleurobipunctatus           
R1217Testudo hermanni           
R1218Testudo marginata           
M1349Tursiops truncatus    132  180     
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
Agabus bipustulatus                   
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
Anguis fragilis                   
Anguis fragilis                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
1353Canis aureus                   
1353Canis aureus                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
1350Delphinus delphis                     
1350Delphinus delphis                     
1350Delphinus delphis                     
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
5655Gasterosteus aculeatus                   
5655Gasterosteus aculeatus                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
A604Larus michahellis                   
A604Larus michahellis                   
A604Larus michahellis                   
Martes foina                   
Martes foina                   
1357Martes martes                   
1357Martes martes                   
1357Martes martes                   
Meles meles                   
Meles meles                   
Mustela nivalis                   
Mustela nivalis                   
Natrix natrix                   
Natrix natrix                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
Neomys anomalus                   
Neomys anomalus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1238Podarcis erhardii                   
1238Podarcis erhardii                   
1238Podarcis erhardii                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
Salvinia natans                   
Sciurus vulgaris                   
Sciurus vulgaris                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0156.69
N0217.67
N039.70
N040.01
N050.16
N067.68
N081.06
N154.33
N161.65
N180.94
N230.11

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

The Wetlands of Amvrakikos gulf are a complex ecosystem consisting of the shallow marine waters of the gulf itself, a rare wetlands formation of a double delta of Louros and Arachthos rivers, a lagoon system composed of three major lagoons (Rodia, Tsoukalio, Logarou) and some smaller ones, as well as a sea zone just south of them. The whole delta covers in the whole site an area about 450 km2. The total area of the lagoons is approximetely 80 km2. Variable habitats characterize the examined area. Dense and extensive reed communites (Phragmitetum) cover a large terrestrial part of the site and can be differentiated in a major area along the Louros and in many small areas in the eastern sector. Close to the reed-belts, stands of Scirpetum maritimi as well as patches of Nymphaea alba and Iris pseudacorus occur. Very few stands of gallery woodlands have remained in the Louros - Arachthos double delta. The maquis vegetation covers small area with main distribution on the surrounding hills. Evergreen woodland is found in the peninsula of Koronisia, while the last remaining stands of deciduous woodland are found on the northeast of the Mavrovouni hill and according to their species composition belong to the Coccifero - Carpinetum community.The site constitutes a complex ecosystem consisting of the double delta of Louros and Arachthos rivers, a lagoon system composed of three major lagoons (Rodia, Tsoukalio, Logarou) and some smaller ones, as well as a sea zone just south of them. The delta covers in the whole site an area about 450 km2. The total area of the lagoons is approximately 64 km2. Variable habitats charaterize the studied area. Dense and extensive reed communities (Phragmitetum) cover a large terrestrial part of the site and can be differentiated in a major area along the Louros and in many small areas in the eastern sector. Close to the reed-belts, stands of Scirpetum maritimi as well as patches of Nymphaea alba and Iris pseudacorus occur. Few stands of gallery woodlands have remained in the Louros-Arachthos double delta. The maquis vegetation covers small area with main distribution on the surrounding hills. The single true evergreen woodland is found in the peninsula of Koronisia, while the last remaining stands of deciduous woodland are found on the northeast of the Mavrovouni hill and according to their species composition belong to the Coccifero-Carpinetum community. The total area of the deeper and productive marine waters of Amvrakikos Gulf constitutes the habitat of a local and resident population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

4.2 Quality and importance

It is one of the best conserved ecosystems with high ecological value at both national and international level. In it we can find at least all elements of a typical natural Mediterranean delta. The habitat types that are in a very good ecological condition and cover large areas are the wet meadows of Juncus and the halophytic communities of the class Arthrocnemetalia. The halophilous vegetation covers an area of 43km2 and apart from Acheloos delta and the delta complex near Thessaloniki, this is the largest delta complex throughout Greece.The Tsoukalio lagoon is one of the largest of its kind not only in Greece but in the entire Mediterranean region. The major reed-bed area on the Louros can be considered as one of the largest coherent reed-beds in Greece, and the deciduous woodland on the Mavrovouni hill represents a system comparatively rare in Greece. In addition to the endemic plant species cited in section 3.3 some interesting plant taxa listed in section 3.3 with motivation D, occur in the site area. These are: a) Spirodela polyrhiza species apparently not common in Greece. It is well known that the Greek delta areas are very rich ecosystems. This is particularly evident from the fauna of this site which is very diverse and abundant. Several vertebrate taxa (other than birds) have been recorded from this site. Some of them are listed in Annex II of the Direcetive 92/43/EEC (section 3.2) and some remaining taxa are considered Other Important Species (section 3.3). The site is a foraging area of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta. The site is one of the best conserved ecosystems with high ecological value at both national and international level. In it we can find at least all elements of a typical natural Mediterranean delta. The habitat types that are in a very good ecological condition and cover large areas are the wet meadows of Juncus and the halophytic communities of the class Arthrocnemetalia. The halophilous vegetation covers an area of 43km2 and apart from Acheloos delta and the delta complex near Thessaloniki, this is the largest delta complex throughout Greece.The Tsoukalio lagoon is one of the largest of its kind not only in Greece but in the entire Mediterranean region. The major reed-bed area on the Louros can be considered as one of the largest coherent reed-beds in Greece, and the deciduous woodland on the Mavrovouni hill represents a system comparatively rare in Greece. In addition to the endemic plant species cited in section 3.3 some interesting plant taxa listed in section 3.3 with motivation D, occur in the site area. These are: a) Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia, the populations in Greece of which are very degraded and must be protected, b) Spirodela polyrhiza species apparently not common in Greece, and c) Salvinia natans and Cotula coronopifolia, which are scattered in Greece. Salvia natans additionally recieves motivation D since it is protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, and is also listed in the WCMC Plants Database as "Endangered". It is well known that the Greek delta areas are very rich ecosystems. This is particularly evident from the fauna of this site which is very diverse and abundant. Several vertebrate taxa (other than birds) have been recorded from this site. Some of them are listed in Annex II of the Direcetive 92/43/EEC (section 3.2) and some remaining taxa are considered Other Important Important Species (section 3.3). It should be noted here that taking the opinion of Economidis (pers. comm.) into consideration, we include under the fish names of Phoxinellus spp., Cobitis taenia the following valid Greek taxa respectively (Economidis, 1991) Psuedophoxinus stymphalicus and C. hellenica. Among the taxa of sections 3.3, four are threatened in Greece indicated by motivation A (the water shrew Neomys anomalus, the dormouse Dryomys nitedula wingei, the jackal Canis aureus, and the dolphin Delphinus delphis). Most of the taxa from these two sections are protected by the Bern Convention therefore receiving the C motivation (the only exceptions are the hedgehog Erinaceus concolor, the harvest mouse Micromys minutus, the rock mouse Apodemus mystacimus epimelas, the vole Microtus thomasi and the jackal Canis aureus). The dolphin Delphinus delphis is given the C motivation for the additional reason that it is included in the lists of the CITES Convention. Moreover, most of the 37 taxa are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 thus being eligible for motivation D (in this case the exceptions are the frogs Rana epeirotica, R. ridibunda, the lizards Ophisaurus apodus, Ablepharus kitaibelii, the snake Vipera ammodytes, the small mammals Neomys anomalus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus mystacinus epimelas, Microtus thomasi, the jackal Canis aureus, the marten Martes foina and the badger Meles meles). The D motivation is also allocated to: a) the anurans Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina, the lizard Ablepharus kitaibelii, the snake Natrix tessellata and the dolphin Delphinus delphis, since these taxa are mentioned in the handbook of the CORINE-Biotopes Project, and b) the newt Triturus vulgaris graecus, the frog Rana epeirotica, the lizards Algyroides nigropunctatus, Podarcis erhardii, P. taurica ionica, and the small mammals Micromys minutus, Apodemus mystacinus epimelas, Microtus thomasi, since they are all Balkan endemics. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, except Everes argiades which is included in the list of "Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Pieris krueperi is also included in this list. The marine area of the site is considered of great importance for the resident population of the vulnerable, coastal, common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. The bottlenose dolphin is the only cetacean species living in the murky and eutrophic waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, constituting a geographically and otherwise distinct group with little (if any) demographic exchange. The species is listed in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC and is also included in the Bern, Bonn and CITES conventions, in the Greek Red Data Book and is also protected by the Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). By applying standard criteria provided by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species this ‘subpopulation’ qualifies as Endangered. While the local density of dolphins is the highest recorded anywhere in the Mediterranean Sea, this is not indicative of favourable conservation status or pristine habitat: the bottlenose dolphins face a risk of extinction due to their isolation, small population size and small extent of occurrence, as well as to acute and growing anthropogenic impacts in this semi-closed shallow habitat. The gulf is considered as a key area for the species and the population is probably one of the most important isolated population units for bottlenose dolphins in the Mediterranean. Κάτω ρους π. Αράχθου: Η προτεινόμενη περιοχή επέκτασης περιλαμβάνει τον υγρό δίαυλο του π. Αράχθου από τις εκβολές μέχρι και το χωριό Ανθότοπος καθώς και τα κανάλια των πηγών Αγ. Γεωργίου. Περιοχή με σημαντικό πληθυσμό του ενδημικού είδους Cobitis arachthosensis. Μικρά κανάλια στην περιοχή των πηγών Περάνθης (πηγές Αγ. Γεωργίου) έχουν ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον λόγο της ύπαρξης των επίσης ενδημικών Pelasgus thesproticus, Economidichthys pygmaeus, Telestes pleurobipunctatus καθώς και του απομονωμένου πληθυσμού του επίσης σπάνιου και ενδημικού είδους Valencia letourneuxi (Kalogianni et al. 2006).Η παρόχθια περιοχή και οι παρόχθιοι και υγροτοπικοί και γεωργικοί χώροι δίπλα στο ποτάμι, έχουν πολύ μεγάλο ενδιαφέρον για την βιοποικιλότητα (Zogaris et al. 2003). Πεδιάδα Λούρου: Η προτεινόμενη περιοχή επέκτασης περιλαμβάνει τα μικρά ρέματα και αντίσοιχους υγρότοπους στην περιοχή του χωριού Λούρος, δηλαδή της δυτική παρόχθια ζώνη του ποταμού Λούρου. Μία από τις σημαντικότερες περιοχές για το είδος Valencia letourneuxi. Η πυκνότητα του πληθυσμού και το ενδιαίτημα στην περιοχή είναι εξαιρετικά υψηλή σε σχέση με άλλες (Kalogianni et al. 2006). Η περιοχή έχει ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον για πολλά άλλα ενδημικά και σπάνια ψάρια των γλυκών υδάτων. Στα ψυχρά πηγαία νερά διαβιούν μεγάλοι πληθυσμοί Telestes pleurobipunctatus. Η περιοχή έχει ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον και για άλλα είδη που προστατευόνται από την Οδηγία 92/43 όπως Cobitis hellenica, Pelasgus thesproticus, Luciobarbus albanicus κ.α. Παράλληλα, η περιοχή χαρακτηρίζεται από εκτεταμένα παρόχθια δάση, μικρούς χείμαρρους, υγρά λιβάδια κ.α. (βλ. Zogaris 2003, 2008), ιδιαίτερης σημασίας για μια σειρά υγροτοπικών και παρόχθιων οικοσυστημάτων. Καμπή Φιλιππιάδας: Η προτεινόμενη περιοχή επέκτασης περιλαμβάνει τον υγρό δίαυλο του π. Λούρου, στο ύψος της Φιλιππιάδας και κατάντη αυτής καθώς και τον υγρό δίαυλο των πηγών στο χωριό Καμπή, μέχρι τη συμβολή τους με τον π. Λούρο. Εξαιρετικά σημαντική περιοχή εξάπλωσης για το είδος Caspiomyzon graecus (Eudontomyzon sp.). Το είδος αναπαράγεται σε πηγαία ψυχρά νερά, κατάντη του χωριού Καμπη. Είναι από τις ελάχιστες περιοχές όπου απαντά αυτό το στενά τοπικό ενδημικό είδος (Renaud and Economidis, 2010). Στην περιοχή απαντούν και άλλα ενδημικά είδη όπως Pelasgus thesproticus, Telestes pleurobipunctatus και Lucioarbus albanicus.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MA01i
HA02.01i
LA04i
LA09i
LA10.01i
MC01.01.02i
MD01.02i
LD01.03i
LD03.03i
ME01i
ME02i
ME02.01i
ME03.01i
ME03.02i
ME03.03i
HF01i
MF02.01.02i
HF02.02.01i
MF03.01i
HF03.02.05i
MG05o
LG05o
LG05.11i
LH01i
MH01.05b
HH01.05i
MH01.08b
MH01.08i
MH02.06i
MH03.03i
MH03.03b
MH05.01b
LI01o
MJ02i
HJ02b
MJ02o
LJ02.01.03i
MJ02.05i
LJ02.07.01i
LJ02.09i
MJ03.01.01i
MK01.01i
MK01.01o
MK02.03i
MK02.03b
MK02.03o
HM01i
MM02.03b
MXEo
MXOo
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MD05o
HF01i
LG01.01i
LG05o
MG05.05b

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]
GR0856.81
GR9219.00
GR9681.00
GR9924.19
IN0079.34
IN0479.34

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR96Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou*81.00
GR08Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou - Periochi prostasias tis fysis*56.81
GR92Periochi Perivallontikou Elegchou Ethnikou Parkou Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni C)*19.00
GR99Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni A-1: Periochi Eidikis Diacheirisis Ydaton)*1.67
GR99Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni B: Periochi Eidikon Rythmiseon)*22.52

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou*81.00
Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou - Periochi prostasias tis fysis*56.81
Periochi Perivallontikou Elegchou Ethnikou Parkou Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni C)*19.00
Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni A-1: Periochi Eidikis Diacheirisis Ydaton)*1.67
Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Amvrakikou (Zoni B: Periochi Eidikon Rythmiseon)*22.52

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY