Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type1.2 Site code

1.3 Site name

1.4 First Compilation date1.5 Update date

1.6 Respondent:

Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:





2.2 Area [ha]:

2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code

Region Name

GR22Ionia Nisia

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110info      0.00   
1120info      0.00   
1170info      0.00   
1240info      0.00   
1410info      0.00   
2110info      0.00   
5420info      0.00   
7210info      0.00   
9320info      0.00   
9540info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
R1224Caretta caretta             
R1293Elaphe situla           
R1222Mauremys caspica           
M1366Monachus monachus           
R1217Testudo hermanni           
M1349Tursiops truncatus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1258  Algyroides moreoticus                   
1243  Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
  Bufo bufo                   
1201  Bufo viridis                   
  Coluber gemonensis                   
1286  Coluber najadum                   
1350  Delphinus delphis                   
  Dianthus fruticosus ssp. occidentalis                   
1203  Hyla arborea                   
  Hypericum aegypticum                   
1251  Lacerta trilineata                   
  Lippia nodiflora                   
  Malpolon monspessulanus                   
  Martes foina                   
  Mustela nivalis                   
  Pancratium maritimum                   
1057  Parnassius apollo                   
  Syngnathus abaster                   
1289  Telescopus fallax                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class

% Cover


Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site includes Laganas Bay and Marathonisi Isle on the south coast of Zakynthos Island. The substrate is sandy and waters are not very deep (10m max.) thus accounting for the expansive Posidonia beds. The coastal zone of Laganas presents high biological significance because of the occurrence of highly important habitats like sandy beaches with psammophytic plant associations, rocky coasts, coastal lakes, river outlets, etc. In these biotopes characteristic and sometimes unique plant and animal associations grow. In the beach of Marathonisi lowland sand-dunes exist which in some areas present extensions to the inland up to 50m. Beyond the beach, dense Mediterranean vegetation occurs (macquis vegetation). The coastal zone of Laganas is extended for some kilometres inland and 10-15 kilometres in the sea and it is considered as a site with high biological importance exactly because of the presence of biotopes as sandy beaches, sea cliffs, coastal lakes, tidal rivers, etc. The area of this site became well known for two main reasons: 1) the sandy beaches of the sites are considered the main egg-laying sites of the Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) in Greece, and maybe the Mediterranean as a whole, and 2) the contradictions between the ecologists who suggest the protection of the area and a proportion of the local population which support tourist development of the area, by hotel building, etc. The site consists of a number of small and sandy beaches which are separated from each other by rocky coasts or small hills, and this landscape is characterized by well-developed typical Mediterranean vegetation types. Also similar is the situation regarding the vegetation cover and the landscape (characterized by a sandy beach of high ecological and aesthetic importance) of Marathonisi and Peluso which are situated within the Laganas Gulf and the bottom of the marine part of the site which is dominated by Posidonia beds.

4.2 Quality and importance

There is no doubt that the sandy beaches of the Laganas area are among the most important oviposition sites of the species Caretta caretta in the whole Mediterranean area. Keeping in mind that nesting is a critical stage of the biological cycle of Caretta caretta related to the survival of the species, the biological importance of this site is obvious. It should be pointed out, however, that this biological importance is not restricted to the reasons mentioned above. Both the terrestrial and the marine part of the site are characterized by the presence of important habitats (sand-dunes, sandy beaches, rocky coasts, cliffs, Posidonia meadows, etc), and together all these form an ecosystem of high quality. Most of these habitats are characterized by typical Mediterranean types of vegetation and Greek endemics are not rare. Pancratium maritimum, which is included in section 3.3 with the motivation D, is a species whose populations have been considerably reduced along the Greek coasts. Hypericum aegypticum is an important plant species which has a broader distribution in the Mediterranean area but it is rare in Greece. Lippia nodiflora has also an interesting phytogeographical distribution. Moreover, some other non-bird vertebrates recorded in this site are placed in sections 3.3 as Other Important Important Species,. Among them the lizard Algyroides moreoticus is endemic to Peloponnisos and some of the Ionian islands. All these taxa are included in the Bern Convention lists and are therefore marked with motivation C. Also, apart from the Marten Martes foina and the fish Syngnathus abaster, all the remaining taxa receive motivation D since they are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. The same motivation is additionally given to some of these taxa for the following reasons: a) the lacertid lizard Algyroides nigropunctatus and the colubrid snake Coluber gemonensis, are Balkan endemics; b) the anuran amphibians Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea are mentioned in the handbook of the CORINE-Biotopes Project. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation C are protected by the Bern Convention.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Arianoutsou-Faraggitaki M. 1985. Anthropogenic activities occurring at the nesting beaches of the sea turtle Caretta caretta in Zakynthos. Thessaloniki 1985. Margaritoulis D., Dimopoulos D. & E. Kornaraki. 1991. Monitoring and conservation of Caretta caretta on Zakynthos. The Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece. 1991. Arapis Th. 1987. Nesting activity and factors affecting breeding of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta (L.) in Greece. Athens 1987. Paraskevopoulos A.G. 1991. Meleti organosis ton drastiriotiton kai protasi diacheirisis gia tin prostasia tou fysikou perivallontos tis evryteris periochis tou Kolpou Lagana Zakynthou. A' fasi. Athina 1991. B' fasi. Athina 1992. Chondropoulos B.P. 1986. A checklist of the Greek reptiles. I.The lizards. Amphibia-Reptilia 7: 217-235. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). Chondropoulos B.P. 1989. A checklist of Greek reptiles. II.The snakes. Herpetozoa 2: 3-36. (3.2, 3.3). Arnold E.N., Burton J.A. & D.W. Ovenden.1978. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. (4.2) Karavellas D. 1995. WWF Integrated Ionian Project for the Study and Conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus on Zakynthos. Annual Progress Report. 24p. and 5 Appendices. (3.2). Joger U. 1984. Taxonomische Revision der Gattung Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Bonn. zool. Beitr. 35(1/3): 129-174. (3.4, 4.2). MED-SPA. (3.2, 4.2). Bern Convention (Appendices II & III). (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). Proedriko Diatagma (Presidential Decree) 67/1981. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). CORINE-Biotopes Project. (3.3, 4.2). Chondropoulos B.P. & J.J. Lykakis. 1983. Ecology of the Balkan Wall Lizard, Podarcis taurica ionica (Sauria: Lacertidae) from Greece. Copeia, 1983(4): 991-1001. (3.4, 4.2). Wittmer W. 1974. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Malthinus Latr. II. (Col. Cantharidae). Ent. Arb. Mus. Frey 25: 358-427. (3.3, 3.4). Hicker R. 1930. Coleoptera, Cantharidae. In: M.Beier: Zoologische Forschungsreise nach den Jonischen Inseln und dem Peloponnes. Sb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 139: 137-142. (3.3, 3.4). Coiffait H. 1980. Le genre Micrillus Raffray (Coleopteres Staphylinidae Paederinae). Nouv. Rev. Ent. 10(2): 143-157. (3.3, 3.4). Kuehnelt W. 1965. Tenebrionidae. In: A.Kanellis: Catalogous Faune Graeciae. Pars 1. To Wuno 1965, pp.1-60. (3.3, 3.4). Oertzen E.von 1886. Verzeichnis der Coleopteren Griechenlands und Cretas, nebst einigen Bemerkungen uber ihre geographische Verbreitung und die Zeit des Vorkommens einiger Arten betreffenden Sammelberischten. Berlin ent. Z. 30: 189-293. (3.3, 3.4). Koch C. 1944-1948. Die Tenebrioniden Kretas. Mit. Munchen ent. Ges. 34: 255-386. (3.3, 3.4). Henrot H. 1967. Note sur les Catopidae du Peloponnese et description d'un Choleva (Cholevopsis) nouveau [Col. CATOPIDAE]. Boll. Soc. Ent. Fr. 72: 61-66. (3.3, 3.4). Heinze E. 1943. Langelandia (Normandella) zacynthia sp.nov., eine neue Langelandia aus Griechenland. (Colydiidae). Entomol. Blatter 39(5/6): 127-129. (3.3, 3.4). Bordoni A. 1984. Su alcuni Leptobius Casey del Mediterraneo (Col., Staphylinidae). Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital. 116(4-7): 83-88. (3.3, 3.4). Neuer Beitrag zur Kaferfauna Griechenlands. Bt. Ent. Z. 28(1): 17-100. (3.3, 3.4).. Gridelli E. 1929. Ricerche faunistiche nell'isole italiane dell'Egeo. Coleotteri. Arch. Zool. Ital. 13: 155-176. (3.3, 3.4). Besuchet C. 1961. Pselaphides palearctiques. Especes nouvelles et notes synonymiques I (Coleoptera). Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. 34(1): 30-42. (3.3, 3.4). Breuning S.von & A. Villiers 1967. Un nouveau Dorcadion de Grece (Col., Cerambycidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 72(1/2): 37-39. (3.3, 3.4). Berti N. & Daccordi M. 1974. Les Cyrtonastes (Col. Chrys., Chrysomelinae) (2e partie). Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 10(4): 853-864. (3.3, 3.4). Strouhal H. 1939b. Isopoda (14. Beitrag zur Landisopodenfauna des Balkans). In: W. Kuehnelt: Zoologische Ergebnisse einer von Professor Dr. JAN VERSLUYS geleiteten Forschungfahrt nach Zante. Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 88/89: 173-188. (3.3, 3.4). Schmalfuss H. 1990. Die Landisopoden (Oniscidea) Griechenlands. 11. Beitrag: Gattung Chaetophiloscia (Philosciidae). Rev. suisse Zool. 97(1): 169-193. (3.3, 3.4). Strouhal H. 1956. Zoologische Studien in West-Griechenland. VI. Teil Isopoda terrestria II. Armadillidiidae, Amadillidae. Sitz.-Ber. Osterr. Akad. Wiss., mat.-nat. Kl., Abt1 165: 585-618. (3.3, 3.4). Gozmany L.A. (in press). Fauna Graeciae: Lepidoptera of Greece. Hellenic Zoological Society. (3.3, 3.4). Rebel H. 1910. Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna der Jonischen Inseln. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 60: 418-431. (3.3, 3.4). Gaskin D. & E. Littler 1986. Rhopalocera from Kefalonia, Zakynthos, Samos and Chios islands (Greece) and the Kusadasi region (SW Turkey) in 1983 and 1984. Ent. Rec. J. Var. 98: 186-192. (3.3, 3.4).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

designated at national or regional level:

Type code

Site name


Cover [%]

IN01Kolpos Lagana*68.44
GR91Perifereiaki zoni tou Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*4.46
GR03Zoni A1 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*0.40
GR09Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai Y’ Ethnikou Thalass*89.75
GR99Prostatevomena topia F1, F1’, F2 kai F3 Ethnikou Thalassiou*5.96
GR97Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*95.53

designated at international level:


Site name


Cover [%]

Other Kolpos Lagana*68.44
Perifereiaki zoni tou Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*4.46
Zoni A1 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*0.40
Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai Y’ Ethnikou Thalass*89.75
Prostatevomena topia F1, F1’, F2 kai F3 Ethnikou Thalassiou*5.96
Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*95.53


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:MANAGEMENT AGENCY OF “ZAKYNTHOS NATIONAL MARINE PARK" (PD 1272/2003, Article 7, para 1)

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:
No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Plan for management and sustainable development of agricultural and stock raising zones of Zakynthos National Park - 2006.



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