Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

B

1.2 Site code

GR2210002

1.3 Site name

KOLPOS LAGANA ZAKYNTHOU (AKR. GERAKI - KERI) KAI NISIDES MARATHONISI KAI PELOUZO

1.4 First Compilation date

1994-11

1.5 Update date

2016-12

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας
Address:               
Email:
Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:20.906944
Latitude:37.709167

2.2 Area [ha]

6977.6600

2.3 Marine area [%]

87.6900

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR22Ionia Nisia

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      0.00   
1120  info  X     0.00   
1170  info      0.00   
1210  info      0.023299  0.00 
1240  info      25.5921  0.00 
1410  info      1.82808  0.00 
2110  info      29.6181  0.00 
2120  info      24.7595  0.00 
2190  info      0.010617  0.00 
2210  info      9.39603  0.00 
2270  info  X     37.0777  0.00 
3170  info  X     0.0666951  0.00 
5210  info      0.0699605  0.00 
5420  info      90.9767  0.00 
5430  info      0.00464901  0.00 
7210  info  X     0.323251  0.00 
92D0  info      0.0684337  0.00 
9320  info      165.21  0.00 
9540  info      14.0736  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
R1279Elaphe quatuorlineata           
R1293Elaphe situla           
R1220Emys orbicularis           
R2373Mauremys rivulata           
R1217Testudo hermanni           
M1349Tursiops truncatus                 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
A298Acrocephalus arundinaceus                   
A298Acrocephalus arundinaceus                   
A295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus                   
A295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus                   
A168Actitis hypoleucos                   
A168Actitis hypoleucos                   
1258Algyroides moreoticus      10000             
1258Algyroides moreoticus      10000             
1258Algyroides moreoticus      10000             
1258Algyroides moreoticus      10000             
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
1243Algyroides nigropunctatus                   
Allium callimischon ssp. callimischon                   
A705Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos                   
A705Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos                   
2432Anguis fragilis                   
2432Anguis fragilis                   
A255Anthus campestris    50             
A255Anthus campestris    50             
A256Anthus trivialis                   
A256Anthus trivialis                   
A228Apus (Tachymarptis) melba                   
A228Apus (Tachymarptis) melba                   
A226Apus apus                   
A226Apus apus                   
A028Ardea cinerea cinerea                     
A028Ardea cinerea cinerea                     
A028Ardea cinerea cinerea                     
A218Athene noctua    116  142           
A218Athene noctua    116  142           
Brassica cretica ssp. aegaea                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
A087Buteo buteo    10           
A087Buteo buteo    10           
A087Buteo buteo    10           
A010Calonectris diomedea                   
A010Calonectris diomedea                   
A224Caprimulgus europaeus    297  457           
A224Caprimulgus europaeus    297  457           
A364Carduelis carduelis                     
A364Carduelis carduelis                     
A363Carduelis chloris                     
A363Carduelis chloris                     
Cerastium illyricum ssp. brachiatum                   
A081Circus aeruginosus                   
A081Circus aeruginosus                   
A081Circus aeruginosus                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
1286Coluber najadum                   
A349Corvus corone                     
A349Corvus corone                     
A212Cuculus canorus                   
A212Cuculus canorus                   
Cyclamen hederifolium                   
A738Delichon urbicum (urbica)                   
A738Delichon urbicum (urbica)                   
1350Delphinus delphis    10           
1350Delphinus delphis    10           
1350Delphinus delphis    10           
1350Delphinus delphis    10               
1350Delphinus delphis    10               
1350Delphinus delphis    10               
Dianthus fruticosus ssp. occidentalis                   
A697Egretta garzetta garzetta                   
A697Egretta garzetta garzetta                   
A377Emberiza cirlus                     
A377Emberiza cirlus                     
3021Epinephelus marginatus                   
3021Epinephelus marginatus                   
A269Erithacus rubecula                     
A269Erithacus rubecula                     
A269Erithacus rubecula                     
A100Falco eleonorae                   
A100Falco eleonorae                   
A100Falco eleonorae                   
A709Falco peregrinus brookei             
A709Falco peregrinus brookei             
A096Falco tinnunculus    37           
A096Falco tinnunculus    37           
A096Falco tinnunculus    37           
A097Falco vespertinus                   
A097Falco vespertinus                   
A097Falco vespertinus                   
A321Ficedula albicollis    530             
A321Ficedula albicollis    530             
A322Ficedula hypoleuca                   
A322Ficedula hypoleuca                   
A359Fringilla coelebs                     
A359Fringilla coelebs                     
A359Fringilla coelebs                     
A123Gallinula chloropus                     
A123Gallinula chloropus                     
Heptaptera colladonioides                   
5669Hierophis gemonensis                   
5669Hierophis gemonensis                   
A252Hirundo daurica                   
A252Hirundo daurica                   
A251Hirundo rustica                   
A251Hirundo rustica                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
Iris unguicularis ssp. carica var. angustifolia                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
A341Lanius senator                   
A341Lanius senator                   
A604Larus michahellis    800  1200           
A604Larus michahellis    800  1200           
A604Larus michahellis    800  1200           
Limonium phitosianum                   
Limonium zacynthium    540  570           
A230Merops apiaster                   
A230Merops apiaster                   
A230Merops apiaster                   
A281Monticola solitarius                     
A281Monticola solitarius                     
A262Motacilla alba                     
A262Motacilla alba                     
A262Motacilla alba                     
A260Motacilla flava                   
A260Motacilla flava                   
A319Muscicapa striata                   
A319Muscicapa striata                   
2469Natrix natrix                   
2469Natrix natrix                   
A610Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax                   
A610Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax                   
A278Oenanthe hispanica                   
A278Oenanthe hispanica                   
A278Oenanthe hispanica                   
A277Oenanthe oenanthe                   
A277Oenanthe oenanthe                   
A277Oenanthe oenanthe                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
Ophrys bombyliflora                   
Ophrys bombyliflora                   
Ophrys ferrum-equinum ssp. gottfriediana                   
Ophrys ferrum-equinum ssp. gottfriediana                   
Ophrys fusca                   
Ophrys fusca                   
Ophrys lutea ssp. minor                   
Ophrys lutea ssp. minor                   
Ophrys mammosa                   
Ophrys mammosa                   
Ophrys sphegodes                   
Ophrys sphegodes                   
Ophrys spruneri ssp. spruneri                   
Ophrys spruneri ssp. spruneri                   
Orchis laxiflora                   
Orchis laxiflora                   
Orchis palustris                   
Orchis palustris                   
A337Oriolus oriolus                   
A337Oriolus oriolus                   
A337Oriolus oriolus                   
A214Otus scops    61  174           
A214Otus scops    61  174           
A214Otus scops    61  174           
Pagrus pagrus                   
Pagrus pagrus                   
Palinurus elephas                   
5363Pelophylax kurtmuelleri      10000             
5363Pelophylax kurtmuelleri      10000             
A392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii    30  50           
A392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii    30  50           
A151Philomachus pugnax                   
A151Philomachus pugnax                   
A151Philomachus pugnax                   
A273Phoenicurus ochruros                     
A273Phoenicurus ochruros                     
A273Phoenicurus ochruros                     
A274Phoenicurus phoenicurus                   
A274Phoenicurus phoenicurus                   
A274Phoenicurus phoenicurus                   
A314Phylloscopus sibilatrix                   
A314Phylloscopus sibilatrix                   
A316Phylloscopus trochilus                   
A316Phylloscopus trochilus                   
A343Pica pica                     
A343Pica pica                     
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1248Podarcis taurica      10000             
1248Podarcis taurica      10000             
1248Podarcis taurica      10000             
Raja asterias                   
Raja asterias                   
Raja clavata                   
Raja clavata                   
Raja miraletus                   
Raja miraletus                   
Raja radula                   
Raja radula                   
A249Riparia riparia                   
A249Riparia riparia                   
A275Saxicola rubetra                   
A275Saxicola rubetra                   
A275Saxicola rubetra                   
Scorpiurus vermiculatus                   
Scrophularia heterophylla var. heterophylla                   
Scyliorhinus canicula                   
Scyliorhinus canicula                   
1090Scyllarides latus                   
1090Scyllarides latus                   
1090Scyllarides latus                   
Serapias bergonii                   
Serapias bergonii                   
Serapias cordigera                   
Serapias cordigera                   
Serapias ionica                   
Serapias ionica                   
Serapias lingua                   
Serapias parviflora                   
Serapias parviflora                   
A361Serinus serinus                     
A361Serinus serinus                     
Sphoeroides pachygaster                   
Sphoeroides pachygaster                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                     
A209Streptopelia decaocto                     
A210Streptopelia turtur                   
A210Streptopelia turtur                   
A311Sylvia atricapilla                     
A311Sylvia atricapilla                     
A309Sylvia communis                   
A309Sylvia communis                   
A305Sylvia melanocephala                   
A305Sylvia melanocephala                   
Syngnathus abaster                   
Syngnathus abaster                   
1289Telescopus fallax                   
1289Telescopus fallax                   
1289Telescopus fallax                   
A283Turdus merula                     
A283Turdus merula                     
A283Turdus merula                     
A213Tyto alba    38  153           
A213Tyto alba    38  153           
A232Upupa epops                   
A232Upupa epops                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0187.37
N030.01
N04155.00
N050.51
N060.33
N070.01
N080.89
N152.88
N171.32
N182.11
N233.02

Total Habitat Cover

253.45

Other Site Characteristics

The site includes Laganas Bay and the islets of Marathonisi and Pelouzo on the south coasts of Zakynthos Island. The inner shallow part of the bay (15 m max) is covered by sandy substrate (16% of the area). Posidonia meadows cover a considerable proportion of the middle part of the bay, developed at a depth range of 10 to 40 m (27% of the area). Rocky reefs cover only 9% of the area, and are mainly located around the islets of Marathonisi and Pelouzo and the eastern and southern limits of the Bay. The outer limits of the Bay reach a maximum depth of 110m (approximately). The coastal zone of Laganas presents high biological significance because of the occurrence of highly important habitats like sandy beaches with psammophytic plant associations, rocky coasts, coastal lakes, river outlets, etc. In these biotopes characteristic and sometimes unique plant and animal associations grow. In the beach of Marathonisi lowland sand-dunes exist which in some areas present extensions to the inland up to 50m. Beyond the beach, dense Mediterranean vegetation occurs (macquis vegetation). The coastal zone of Laganas is extended for some kilometres inland and 10-15 kilometres in the sea and it is considered as a site with high biological importance exactly because of the presence of biotopes as sandy beaches, sea cliffs, coastal lakes, tidal rivers, etc. The area of this site became well known for two main reasons: 1) the sandy beaches of the sites are considered the main egg-laying sites of the Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) in Greece, and maybe the Mediterranean as a whole, and 2) the contradictions between the ecologists who suggest the protection of the area and a proportion of the local population which support tourist development of the area, by hotel building, etc. The site consists of a number of small and sandy beaches which are separated from each other by rocky coasts or small hills, and this landscape is characterized by well-developed typical Mediterranean vegetation types. Also similar is the situation regarding the vegetation cover and the landscape (characterized by a sandy beach of high ecological and aesthetic importance) of Marathonisi and Pelouzo which are situated within the Laganas Gulf and the bottom of the marine part of the site which is dominated by Posidonia beds.The site hosts five reptilian species of Annex II. These species are Mauremys rivulata, Testudo hermanni, Emys orbicularis, Elaphe quatorlineata and Elaphe situla. There is also presence of 12 reptilian species and 4 amphibian species of Annex IV. The site constitutes a significant stop over site for spring migation in eastern Mediterranean. It hosts also 11 avifauna species of Annex I. These species are Anthus campestris, Calonectris diomedea, Circus aeruginosus, Egretta garzetta, Falco eleonorae, Falco peregrinus, Falco vespertinus, Ficedula albicollis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii and Caprimulgus europaeus.

4.2 Quality and importance

There is no doubt that the sandy beaches of the Laganas area are among the most important oviposition sites of the species Caretta caretta in the whole Mediterranean area. Keeping in mind that nesting is a critical stage of the biological cycle of Caretta caretta related to the survival of the species, the biological importance of this site is obvious. It should be pointed out, however, that this biological importance is not restricted to the reasons mentioned above. Both the terrestrial and the marine part of the site are characterized by the presence of important habitats (sand-dunes, sandy beaches, rocky coasts, cliffs, Posidonia meadows, reefs, etc), and together all these form an ecosystem of high quality. Most of these habitats are characterized by typical Mediterranean types of vegetation and Greek endemics are not rare. Moreover, some other non-bird vertebrates recorded in this site are placed in sections 3.3 as Other Important Species. Among them the lizard Algyroides moreoticus is endemic to Peloponnisos and some of the Ionian Islands. All these taxa are included in the Bern Convention lists and are therefore marked with motivation C. All the remaining taxa receive motivation D since they are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. The same motivation is additionally given to some of these taxa for the following reasons: a) the lacertid lizard Algyroides nigropunctatus is Balkan endemic; b) the anuran amphibians Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea are mentioned in the handbook of the CORINE-Biotopes Project.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MA01i
LD03b
MD03.02i
LD03.02.02b
HD05b
HE01.02o
MF02.01b
HF02.01b
MF02.01.03b
MF02.01.04b
HF02.02b
MF02.03b
LF02.03i
LF02.03b
HF05b
HG01b
LG01.01i
HG01.01.01b
LG01.03i
MG01.04.03b
HG03i
MG05i
LG05.01i
LG05.02b
LH01b
LH03.01b
MH03.03b
LH03.03b
HH03.03b
MH06.01i
HH06.01b
HI01b
HJ03.01b
HK03b
LM01b
LM01.01b
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]
GR030.40
GR0989.76
GR914.46
GR9795.53
GR995.97
IN0168.45

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR03Zoni A1 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*0.40
GR09Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai YΤ Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*89.76
GR91Perifereiaki zoni tou Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*4.46
GR99Prostatevomena topia F1, F1Τ, F2 kai F3 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*5.97
GR97Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*95.53

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Zoni A1 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*0.40
Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai YΤ Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*89.76
Perifereiaki zoni tou Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*4.46
Prostatevomena topia F1, F1Τ, F2 kai F3 Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*5.97
Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*95.53

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:MANAGEMENT BODY OF “ZAKYNTHOS NATIONAL MARINE PARK"
Address:
Email:

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Plan for management and sustainable development of agricultural and stock raising zones of Zakynthos National Park - 2006.

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY