Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2001-10
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/6-9-2010 (OJ 1495 B)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR22Ionia Nisia

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus           
BA296Acrocephalus palustris           
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA168Actitis hypoleucos           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA228Apus (Tachymarptis) melba           
BA226Apus apus           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA699Ardea cinerea cinerea           
BA635Ardeola ralloides ralloides           
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA403Buteo rufinus                 
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA147Calidris ferruginea                 
BA145Calidris minuta                 
BA010Calonectris diomedea    17000  18000   
BA010Calonectris diomedea    2000  3000   
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA084Circus pygargus           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA738Delichon urbicum (urbica)           
BA697Egretta garzetta garzetta           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA095Falco naumanni           
BA709Falco peregrinus brookei     
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca           
BA657Fringilla coelebs           
BA154Gallinago media                 
BA131Himantopus himantopus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA617Ixobrychus minutus minutus           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA292Locustella luscinioides           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA610Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA771Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA391Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis                 
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA700Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus           
BA119Porzana porzana           
BA464Puffinus yelkouan           
BA249Riparia riparia           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA731Sterna (Gelochelidon) nilotica nilotica           
BA210Streptopelia turtur    8375  32417   
BA351Sturnus vulgaris                 
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA770Sylvia cantillans           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA164Tringa nebularia           
BA165Tringa ochropus           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A680Acrocephalus agricola                   
A680Acrocephalus agricola                   
A680Acrocephalus agricola                   
A696Bubulcus ibis ibis                   
A696Bubulcus ibis ibis                   
A696Bubulcus ibis ibis                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A745Carduelis chloris                   
A745Carduelis chloris                   
A206Columba livia                   
A206Columba livia                   
A206Columba livia                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A721Gallinula chloropus                   
A721Gallinula chloropus                   
A604Larus michahellis    20  40           
A604Larus michahellis    20  40           
A604Larus michahellis    20  40           
A270Luscinia luscinia                   
A270Luscinia luscinia                   
A746Miliaria (Emberiza) calandra                   
A746Miliaria (Emberiza) calandra                   
A313Phylloscopus bonelli                   
A313Phylloscopus bonelli                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A175Stercorarius skua                   
A175Stercorarius skua                   
A175Stercorarius skua                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                   
A353Sturnus roseus                   
A353Sturnus roseus                   
A311Sylvia atricapilla                   
A311Sylvia atricapilla                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A305Sylvia melanocephala                   
A305Sylvia melanocephala                   
A287Turdus viscivorus                   
A287Turdus viscivorus                   
A213Tyto alba             
A213Tyto alba             
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

This site includes two small islands located 27 miles south of the southern coast of Zakynthos island and 28 miles western of the Peloponnisos coast (Katakolo region). Geological evidence suggests that the Strofades islands have an oceanic origin i.e. risen out from the sea, unlike the majority of the Greek islands and islets, which are considered to be chersogenous (remnants of the old Greek continent). This area is also interesting from a paleontological point of view, since fossil records of a Miocenic and or Pliocenic fauna have been found. This area also shows archaeological interest, since on the larger islet there is a very old monastery which was built up in the middle of the 13th century. Nowadays the islands are almost uninhabited but undoubtedly, during the past time when the monastic community was very active, the majority of the natural vegetation was destroyed in favour of the cultivation of cereals, vegetables, fruit-trees etc. Nowadays, natural vagetation characterized by giant trees of Juniperus phoenicea, Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus etc. is restricted in one part of the bigger island. Strofades is an islet complex consisting of the islets of Stamfani and Arpyia, as well as their surrounding rocks, These remote volcanic islets are located 25 n.m. south of Zakynthos island and west of the Peloponnese. They are among the most distant islets to mainland Greece and are surrounded by the deep waters of the Ionian Sea. The low-lying rocky coast of the islets provides ideal shearwater nesting sites, A monastery dating back to the beginning of the previous millennium is located on the larger islet, its land extending over a large area of cultivated fields in the centre of the Island. The site includes a 2.7 n.m, marine extension around Strofades. The deep waters of the adjacent Hellenic Trench provide ideal environment conditions for cetaceans, such as the Sperm Whale, the Curvier's Beaked Whale and all three dolphin species, which are frequently observed in the area.

4.2 Quality and importance

Strofades islands host a significant Scopoli's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) colony, one of the largest in Greece. Additionally, Strofades islands constitute one of the most important stop over sites for migratory birds and more specifically for passerines since Sahara desert and the Mediterranean Sea act as large ecological barriers, with the eastern part of the latter area including the largest distance for birds to cross. Strofades islets host the largest colony of the Cory's Shearwater in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Its exceptional population size and isolation from other colonies in the Aegean Sea, but also in the Central Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas place it among the most important colonies of the species in Greece. Large Cory's Shearwater rafts are regularly observed In the marine area surrounding the islets. These coastal waters are also shearwater foraging grounds, particularly during the breeding season which extends from spring until autumn. Telemetry data revealed that the main foraging areas of those Cory's Shearwaters breeding in the area are located In the wider area around Zakynthos and Kefalonia islands and the Gulf of Patras.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR09Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai YΤ Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*100.00
GR95Strofades Dimou Zakynthion=100.00
GR97Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*100.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Zones A2, A3, Ia, Ib, P1, P2, P3, Y, kai YΤ Ethnikou Thalassiou Parkou Zakynthou*100.00
Strofades Dimou Zakynthion=100.00
Ethniko Thalassio Parko Zakynthou*100.00


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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation



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