Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



Back to top

1.1 Type1.2 Site code

1.3 Site name

1.4 First Compilation date1.5 Update date

1.6 Respondent:

Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


Back to top

2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:





2.2 Area [ha]:

2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code

Region Name

GR22Ionia Nisia

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


Back to top

3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
8140info      0.00   
8210info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA109Alectoris graeca           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba                     
BA218Athene noctua           
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA366Carduelis cannabina           
BA364Carduelis carduelis           
BA363Carduelis chloris           
BA349Corvus corone           
BA253Delichon urbica                     
R1293Elaphe situla           
BA377Emberiza cirlus           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA096Falco tinnunculus           
BA359Fringilla coelebs                     
BA244Galerida cristata           
BA342Garrulus glandarius           
BA438Hippolais pallida                     
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA339Lanius minor                     
BA341Lanius senator           
BA459Larus cachinnans                     
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos                     
BA230Merops apiaster                     
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus                     
BA214Otus scops           
BA329Parus caeruleus           
BA330Parus major           
BA354Passer domesticus           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix                     
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA209Streptopelia decaocto           
BA304Sylvia cantillans                     
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
R1217Testudo hermanni           
BA283Turdus merula           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
  Abies cephalonica                   
  Ajuga orientalis ssp. aenesia                   
1258  Algyroides moreoticus                   
  Alkanna corcyrensis                   
  Arenaria guicciardii                   
  Astragalus sempervirens ssp. cephalonicus                   
  Bufo bufo                   
  Campanula garganica ssp. cephallenica                   
1353  Canis aureus                   
  Centaurea alba ssp. subciliaris                   
  Cerastium candidissimum                   
  Coluber gemonensis                   
  Crocus hadriaticus                   
  Erysimum cephalonicum                   
  Galium peloponnesiacum                   
  Geocaryum peloponnesiacum                   
  Lepus europaeus                   
  Martes foina                   
  Meles meles                   
  Mustela nivalis                   
1054  Papilio alexanor                   
  Paronychia albanica ssp. graeca                   
  Petrorhagia fasciculata                   
  Poa cephalonica                   
  Saturnia pyri                   
  Scaligeria moreana                   
  Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. cephalonica                   
  Silene ionica                   
  Silene ungeri                   
  Talpa caeca                   
1289  Telescopus fallax                   
  Thymus holosericeus                   
  Viola cephalonica                   
1295  Vipera ammodytes                   
1053  Zerynthia polyxena                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


Back to top

4.1 General site character

Habitat class

% Cover


Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Kefalonia is the biggest island in the Ionian region and Mt. Ainos is the highest Ionian mountain with an altitude exceeding 1,600 m. It is a well known mountain, not only due to its altitude but also due to the presence of the famous Abies cephalonica forest which is the main element of the vegetation cover in the highest altitude of this mountain. Abies cephalonica is a Greek endemic species and Mt. Ainos is its "locus classicus". The area of this site consists of three main habitats as follows: a) The Abies forest, very often at moderate altitudes mixed with species of macchie vegetation; b) the rocky slopes which are characterized by looser vegetation but with only a few very important species, and c) the rocky summit and unforested area which houses most of the endemic species of the Kefalonian and Ionian flora. The area of the site has been characterized as a National Park.

4.2 Quality and importance

As an ecosystem and as natural inheritance, the Abies cephalonica forest of this site is considered very important because it is the only forest of this type in the entire Ionian area. Also, this forest is geographically isolated from similar forests of continental Greece, where Abies cephalonica hybridizes with the Balkan Abies borisii-regis, is important as a genetic resource. It is also to be pointed out that the site is also an important one from a biogeographical point of view since the majority of the Ionian endemics can be found at the highest altitudes of Mt. Ainos. Also, the distribution pattern of several plant species occurring in this site suggest phytogeographical links between the Greek and Italian peninsulas. As far as the fauna is concerned, specific reptilian species of Annex II of the 92/43/EEC Directive (section 3.2), and some Other Important Taxa (section 3.3) have been recorded as occurring in this site. Two of these important taxa, the mole Talpa caeca and the jackal Canis aureus, are threatened species placed under the categories of "Insufficiently Known" and "Vulnerable" respectively, in the Greek Red Data Book. The lizard of the Algyroides moreoticus is endemic to Greece. Most of the "Important Taxa" are mentioned in the Bern Convention (motivation C) and/or in the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 (motivation D). The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation C are protected by the Bern Convention. Saturnia pyri is protected by the IUCN Red List and the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants and it is included in the "Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates".

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Phitos D. & J. Damboldt. 1985. I klorida tis nissou Kefallinias. Votanica Chronica 5(1-2). ("Vegetation of the island of Kephallonia"). Bot. Chron. 5(1-2). (3.3, 3.4). Knapp R. 1965. Die Vegetation von Kephallinia Koenigstein 1965. Kontargyris D. & A. Lampakis. 1993. Eidiki chorotaxiki meleti ton nison Kefallinias kai Ithakis gia ton kathorismo chriseon gis me stocho tin anaptyxi kai prostasia. A' fasi.(Land planning of the islands of Kephallinia and Ithaki for the determination of land uses for development and protection. A' phase.). Athina (Athens) 1993. (4.1, 4.2, 4.3). Kitros D., Mavromatis G. & P. Stathopoulos. 1986. Meleti diacheirisis Ethnikou Drymou Ainou (Management study of Ainos National Park). Athina (Athens). (3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2). Sfikas G. & G. Tsounis. 1993. Oikotouristik Odigos tis Elladas. (Ecotouristic Guide to Greece). Athina (Athens). (3.3, 3.4). Arnold, E.N., Burton, J.A. & Ovenden, D.W. (1978): A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. (4.2). Bern Convention (Appendices II and III). (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). Ioannidis I. & G. Giannatos. 1992. Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758). Oikogeneia: Canidae. Tsakali. (Family: Canidae. Jackal). In: The Red Data Book of Threatened Vertebrates of Greece, pp. 283-284. Heath, M. F. and Evans, M. I., eds. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. 2: Southern Europe. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 8, p. 791. M. Karandeinos (coord.). Hellenic Zoological Society and Hellenic Ornithological Society (eds.). Thymeli Publ., Athens. (3.3, 4.2). Keymar P.F. 1986. Der Amphibien und Reptilien der Ionischen Region (Griechenland) - Analyse ihrer rezenten Verbreitungsmuster und Uberlegungen zu ihrer Auswbreitungsgeschichte. O.G.H. - Nachrichten 8/9: 8-44. (3.4, 4.2) MED-SPA (3.2, 3.3). Ondrias J.C. 1966. The taxonomy and geographical distribution of the rodents of Greece. Saugetierk. Mitt. 14 (Suppl.): 1-136. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). Paraschi L. 1992. Talpa europaea (Linnaeus, 1758), Talpa caeca (Savi, 1822), Talpa romana (Thomas, 1902). Oikogeneia: Talpidae. Tyflaspalakas, Aspalakas [Family: Talpidae. Common, Blind and Roman Mole]. In: The Red Data Book of Threatened Vertebrates of Greece, pp. 299-300. M. Karandeinos (coord.) Hellenic Zoological Society and Hellenic Ornithological Society (eds.). Thymeli Publ., Athens. (3.3, 4.2). Proedriko Diatagma (Presidential Decree) 67/1981. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2). Richter K. & W. Mayer. 1990. Einige bemerkenswerge herpetologische Beobachtungen in Griechenland. Herpetozoa 2(3/4): 159-161. (3.4, 4.2). Jeanne C. 1974. Carabiques nouveaux (5e note) (Col. Caraboidea). Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 79(3-4): 66-71. (3.3, 3.4). Wittmer W. 1974. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Malthinus Latr. II. (Col. Cantharidae). Ent. Arb. Mus. Frey 25: 358-427. (3.3, 3.4). Scheerpeltz O. 1958. Staphyliniden aus Mazedonien. Ent. Bl. 54: 41-44. (3.3, 3.4). Wittmer W. 1969. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Metacantharis Bourg. (43.Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaearktischen Cantharidae/Coleoptera). Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 80(1): 1-208. (3.3, 3.4). Hicker R. 1930. Coleoptera, Cantharidae. In: M.Beier: Zoologische Forschungsreise nach den Jonischen Inseln und dem Peloponnes. Sb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 139: 137-142. Muller G. 1934-35. (3.3, 3.4). Diagnosi preliminari di nuovi Coleotteri ipogei e cavernicoli. Att. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat.Trieste 12: 176-181. (3.3, 3.4). Scheerpeltz O. 1931. Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). In: M.Beier: Zoologische Forschungsreise nach den Jonischen Inseln und dem Peloponnes. XV.Teil. Sb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 140: 359-460. (3.3, 3.4). Pace R. 1983b. Studio su alcune specie ionico-balkaniche di Leptotyphlinae. Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 84/B: 449-461. (3.3, 3.4). Schuster A. 1930. Coleoptera Tenebrionidae I. In: M.Beier: Zoologische Forschungsreise nach den Jonischen Inseln und dem Peloponnes. Sb. Akad. Wiss. Wien 139: 133-137. (3.3, 3.4). Reitter E. 1905. Sechzehn neue Coleopteren aus der palaearktischen Fauna. Wien. ent. Z. 24: 241-251. (3.3, 3.4). Oertzen E.von 1886. Verzeichnis der Coleopteren Griechenlands und Cretas, nebst einigen Bemerkungen uber ihre geographische Verbreitung und die Zeit des Vorkommens einiger Arten betreffenden Sammelberischten. Berlin ent. Z. 30: 189-293. (3.3, 3.4). Brulle R. 1832-36. Expedition scientifique de Moree. Section des sciences physiques. Tome 3, Ier patie: Zoologie II. section, pp. 64-393. (3.3, 3.4). Henrot H. 1967. Note sur les Catopidae du Peloponnese et description d'un Choleva (Cholevopsis) nouveau [Col. CATOPIDAE]. Boll. Soc. Ent. Fr. 72: 61-66. (3.3, 3.4). Holdhaus K. 1908. Kritisches Verzeichnis der Pselaphiden und Scydmaeniden der Jonischen Inseln. (Col.). Deutsh. Ent. Zeitschr. 1908(1): 17-31. (3.3, 3.4). Jach M.A. 1985. Speziation durch geographische Isolation am Beispiel der Hydraenenfaune zweier griechischer Inseln (Col., Hydraenidae). Zeit. Arb. Gem. Ost. Ent. 37(1/2): 49-54. (3.3, 3.4). Jach M.A. 1989. Hydraena karinkulolae n.sp. aus Griechenland (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae). Ent. Z. 99(6): 78-80. (3.3, 3.4). Bordoni A. 1984. Su alcuni Leptobius Casey del Mediterraneo (Col., Staphylinidae). Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 116(4-7): 83-88. (3.3, 3.4). Brenske E. & E. Reitter 1884. Neuer Beitrag zur Kaferfauna Griechenlands. Bt. Ent. Z. 28(1): 17-100. (3.3, 3.4). Tzanakakis M.E., Selman B.J. & R.T. Thompson 1963. Leaf feeding Coleoptera of Greece I.Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea collected in years 1961 and 1962. Bull. & Annls. Soc. Ent. Belg. 99(28): 417-425. (3.3, 3.4). Apfelbeck V. 1921. Fauna insectorum balcanica VIII. Zur Kenntnis des balkanischen Curculioniden (Col.). Revision der Gattungen Polydrosus Germ. und Sciaphobus Dan. Glasnik. zem. Mus. Bosn. 38: 49-72. (3.3, 3.4). Besuchet C. 1969. Pselaphides palearctiques. Especes nouvelles et notes synonymiques III (Coleoptera). Rev. suisse Zool. 76(16): 397-420. (3.3, 3.4). Andres R. 1921. Tenebrioniden gesammelt von der Komission zur Erfoschung Mazedoniens (Leitung Prof. Dr.DOLFEIN u. Prof. L.MULLER), von Prof. LORENZ MULLER auf einer Reise nach Patras u. den griechischen Inseln und von Oberpraparator ROCKINGER in Anatolien (Angora). - Mitt. Munchen ent.Ges. 11: 65-69. (3.3, 3.4). Baraud J. 1988. Etude du genre Haplidia. Rev. suisse Zool. 95(2): . (3.3, 3.4). Dahlgren G. 1975. Zur Taxonomie der Gattungen Rhagonycha, Pseudocratosilis und Cratosilis (Col. Cantharidae). Entomol.Blatter 71(2): 100-112. (3.3, 3.4). Strouhal H. 1929. Die Landisopoden des Balkans. 3. Beitrag: Sudbalkan. Z. wiss. Zool. 133: 57-120. (3.3, 3.4). Schmalfuss H. 1986. Die Landisopoden (Oniscidea) Griechenlands. 8. Beitrag: Gattung Kefalloniscus nov. gen. (Scleropactidae). Rev. suisse Zool. 93(2): 279-289. (3.3, 3.4). Schmalfuss H. & S. Sfenthourakis 1995. The Terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea) of Greece. 15th Contribution: Genera Echinarmadillidium and Paxodillidium (Armadillidiidae). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. 518: 1-21. (3.3, 3.4). Schmalfuss H. 1990. Die Landisopoden (Oniscidea) Griechenlands. 11. Beitrag: Gattung Chaetophiloscia (Philosciidae). Rev. suisse Zool. 97(1): 169-193. (3.3, 3.4). Strouhal H. 1927. Zur Kenntnis der Untergattung Armadillidium Verh. (Isop.terr.). Zool. Anz. 74: 5-34. (3.3, 3.4). Strouhal H. 1936b. Die Landasseln der Inseln Korfu, Levkas und Kephalonia. Acta Inst. Mus. zool. Athen 1: 53-111. (3.3, 3.4). Schmalfuss H. 1982. Die Landisopoden (Oniscoidea) Griechenlands. 3. Beitrag: Gattung Armadillidium, Teil II (Armadillidiidae). Spixiana 5(3): 217-230. (3.3, 3.4). Harz K. 1975. Die Orthopteren Europas 2: 1-939 (Junk, The Hague). (3.3, 3.4). Finot A. 1902. Description d'un Stenobothrus nouveau (Orthopt.) de l'ile de Cephalonie. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1902: 53-56. (3.3, 3.4). Staudinger O. 1870. Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna Griechenlands. Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 7: 3-304. (3.3, 3.4). Koutsaftikis A. 1974. (3.3, 3.4). Rebel H. 1910. Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna der Jonischen Inseln. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 60: 418-431. (3.3, 3.4). Gaskin D. & E. Littler 1986. Rhopalocera from Kefalonia, Zakynthos, Samos and Chios islands (Greece) and the Kusadasi region (SW Turkey) in 1983 and 1984. Ent. Rec. J. Var. 98: 186-192. (3.3, 3.4). Sangiorgi D. 1903. Appunti zoologici sull'isola di Cefalonia. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. 36: 69-98. (3.3, 3.4). Koomen P., van Helsdingen P.J. 1993. "Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates". Council of Europe, T-PVS (93) 43, 74pp. (4.2) IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, 154pp.(4.2). Economic Commision for Europe, 1991. European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants. United Nations, 150pp. (4.2) Ministry f Environment, Physical PLannign and Public Works, Special Environmental Study of Ainos National Park (not yet completed)


Back to top

5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

designated at national or regional level:

Type code

Site name


Cover [%]

IN06Ori Agia Dynati, Kokkini Rachi (kefallonia)*0.00

designated at international level:


Site name


Cover [%]

Other Ainos*95.57
Ori Agia Dynati, Kokkini Rachi (kefallonia)*0.00


Back to top

6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:
No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management plan for the National Forest Park - 1996.



Back to top No data