Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

B

1.2 Site code

GR2230004

1.3 Site name

NISOI PAXOI KAI ANTIPAXOI KAI EVRYTERI THALASSIA PERIOCHI

1.4 First Compilation date

1994-12

1.5 Update date

2016-12

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας
Address:               
Email:
Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:20.236132
Latitude:40.016962

2.2 Area [ha]

135527.9000

2.3 Marine area [%]

95.8300

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR22Ionia Nisia

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      10385  0.00   
1120  info  X     3462  0.00   
1170  info      3462  0.00   
1240  info      64.9532  0.00 
2110  info      0.346661  0.00 
5210  info      384.601  0.00 
5330  info      1.38383  0.00 
5420  info      1.19716  0.00 
8330  info      0.00   
9290  info      14.178  0.00 
9320  info      150.547  0.00 
9540  info      21.983  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
R1224Caretta caretta      subadults           
R1224Caretta caretta    12  12  bfemales     
R1227Chelonia mydas        subadults           
M1349Tursiops truncatus                 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Arca noae                   
2621Balaenoptera physalus                   
Balanophyllia europaea                   
Caryophyllia sp                   
Caulerpa cylindracea                   
1008Centrostephanus longispinus                   
1008Centrostephanus longispinus                   
Cystoseira amentacea                   
Cystoseira barbatula                   
Cystoseira compressa                   
Cystoseira corniculata                   
Cystoseira funkii                   
Cystoseira spinosa                   
Cystoseira spp                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
Halophila stipulacea                   
Hyoseris radiata                   
Leptopsammia pruvoti                   
Lithophyllum tortuosum                   
Melobesioideae                   
Ophidiaster ophidianus                   
Orchis coriophora                   
Palinurus elephas                   
Palinurus elephas                    
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Paracentrotus lividus                    
Paracentrotus lividus                    
Percnon gibbesi                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
Pinna rudis                   
Pinna rudis                    
Siganus luridus                   
Sparisoma cretense                   
2034Stenella coeruleoalba                   
Titanoderma trochanter                   
2035Ziphius cavirotris                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0146.71
N040.01
N050.45
N084.85
N1543.37
N170.23
N181.55
N220.38
N232.45

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

The site consists of a group of calcareous islands and islets which are characterized by rocky and eroded coasts, as well as of the surrounding sea area confined by the isobath of 50 m. The biggest islands of this group, Paxoi and Antipaxoi also show an interesting topography. Paxoi is the only island of this group which is permanently inhabited. The flora of the area consists of about 450 taxa. The majority of them, c. 65%, are typical mediterranean elements but 2 species, namely Centaurea paxorum and Limonium antipaxorum, are local endemics. The main natural vegetation type which dominates in the site seems to be evergreen shrubs or tree-like shrubs belonging to either Oleo-Ceratonion (Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europaea, Pistacia lentiscus, Calycotome villosa, Quercus coccifera etc.) or Quercion ilicis (Phyllirea media, Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia terebinthus, Arbutus adrachne etc). Clusters of Mediterranean conifers (Juniperus phoenicea, Pinus halepensis and Cupressus sempervirens) are not uncommon within both the above mentioned vegetation types. Juniperus phoenicea and Pinus halepensis seem to be localized in the northwestern and southeastern part (islet Mogonisi) of Paxoi island respectively. In the rocky coasts, the vegetation zone is characterized by the presence of several plant species adapted to the corresponding conditions viz. Crithmum maritimum, Silene sedoides, Reichardia picroides, Daucus carota, Brassica cretica, Limonium antipaxorum, Centaurea antipaxorum etc. In the central part of Paxoi island, the degradation of the Oleo-Ceratonion and Quercus ilicis, due to the human activities of deforestation (fires, olive groves, vineyards, etc), is obvious and the secondary vegetation type of phrygana (Coridothymion) is observed.The site is a foraging area of marine turtles and hence it extents to the isobath of 50m. Marine habitats (subregion: NISOI PAXOI KAI ANTIPAXOI): In 2015, the site was extended 2nm off coast to comprise important and sensitive circalittoral and deep habitats. The total area now spans about 200km2 of seabed surface, frequently exceeding depths of 200m. The western coasts of the islands are steep-sloping and rather exposed to wave action, while the eastern coasts are more sheltered and milder sloping. Several islets, reefs and shoals add to the geographic and topographic complexity of the site. Cetaceans (subregion: NISOI PAXOI KAI ANTIPAXOI KAI EVRYTERH THALASSIA ZONI APO NOTIA KERKYRA EOS AKROTIRIO AGIOS THOMAS (PREVEZA)): The site consists of a group of calcareous islands and islets which are characterized by rocky and eroded coasts and of all their surrounding territorial sea area, including the waters around south Corfu and off the neighboring west mainland coasts. The vast majority of the site’s sea area consists of shallow (<200 m) waters inhabited by both coastal dolphin species: bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis). In the west part of the site, west of Paxoi-Antipaxoi Islands, the depth increases rapidly offering appropriate habitat for slope and pelagic cetacean species. The striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) inhabit or cross this area. The Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus) is also likely to cross the area according to strandings of this species that have occurred in the wider zone. However, it has not been recorded so far. The biggest islands of this group, Paxoi and Antipaxoi also show an interesting topography. Paxoi is the only island of this group which is permanently inhabited. The flora of the area consists of about 450 taxa. The majority of them, c. 65%, are typical mediterranean elements but 2 species, namely Centaurea paxorum and Limonium antipaxorum, are local endemics. The main natural vegetation type which dominates in the site seems to be evergreen shrubs or tree-like shrubs belonging to either Oleo-Ceratonion (Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europaea, Pistacia lentiscus, Calycotome villosa, Quercus coccifera etc.) or Quercion ilicis (Phyllirea media, Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia terebinthus, Arbutus adrachne etc). Clusters of Mediterranean conifers (Juniperus phoenicea, Pinus halepensis and Cupressus sempervirens) are not uncommon within both the above mentioned vegetation types. Juniperus phoenicea and Pinus halepensis seem to be localized in the northwestern and southeastern part (islet Mogonisi) of Paxoi island respectively. In the rocky coasts, the vegetation zone is characterized by the presence of several plant species adapted to the corresponding conditions viz. Crithmum maritimum, Silene sedoides, Reichardia picroides, Daucus carota, Brassica cretica, Limonium antipaxorum, Centaurea antipaxorum etc. In the central part of Paxoi island, the degradation of the Oleo-Ceratonion and Quercus ilicis, due to the human activities of deforestation (fires, olive groves, vineyards, etc), is obvious and the secondary vegetation type of phrygana (Coridothymion) is observed.

4.2 Quality and importance

Maquis and phrygana occurring in the area are considered as representative types of the Mediterranean vegetation. The clusters of Cupressus sempervirens common throughout the main island are considered as remnants of a former Cupressus forest. Noteworthy is also the presence of two local endemic plant species within this site, Centaurea paxorum and Limonium antipaxorum, which, without doubt, should be included in the Red Data Book of Greek Plants.From the Other Important Species of Flora and Fauna in sections 3.3 the following taxa are included with motivation D, for the reasons mentioned below: Orchis coriophora because Orchidaceae are always attractive and interesting species. Although there is not enough quantitative data it is known that a very small seal colony occupies the steep rocky coasts of the two islands of the site, especially those of their western part. T. truncatus like the other Mediterranean dolphins is in decline, especially during the last decade, and according to the IUCN integrated studies are in urgent need of effective protection (Frantzis, pers. comm.). The islets of the area are also important for sea bird colonies.As deducted from the many sea turtle strandings (>75 Caretta caretta found injured or dead), the marine area from Parga to Cape Mytikas concentrates many turtles which apparently use this area for foraging. Further the beaches along this area are used for nesting by a population of Caretta caretta. Marine habitats (subregion: NISOI PAXOI KAI ANTIPAXOI): Extensive Posidonia oceanica beds (Habitat Type 1120) occur all along the coast at depths between 5-35m, presenting severe signs of degradation at places of frequent anchoring. Detritic and rhodolith beds (important deep subtypes for Habitat Type 1110) dominate the circalittoral sedimentary bottoms. Dense Cystoseira communities characterize the shallow rocky shores, but soft rocks of particular endolithic biodiversity are also present. Various facies of coralligenous assemblages (deep counterpart of Habitat Type 1170) occur along the steep rocky coasts and reefs at depths over ~30m. Horizontal coralligenous formations (“coralligenous platforms”) also occur at depths over 35m. Caves and semi-submerged caves (Habitat Type 8330), several of which of breeding importance for the monk seal Monachus monachus, are common along the west coasts of Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Frequent and locally severe signs of mechanical impact (i.e. anchoring) have been detected on Posidonia beds around Gaios port and the highly frequented beaches of the east coasts of both Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Cetaceans (subregion: NISOI PAXOI KAI ANTIPAXOI KAI EVRYTERH THALASSIA ZONI APO NOTIA KERKYRA EOS AKROTIRIO AGIOS THOMAS (PREVEZA)): The fauna of this insular site is mainly evaluated by the occurrence of the monk seal (Monachus monachus) and the bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), both included in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC and the IUCN “Endangered” common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC. The monk seal is a species of priority for this Directive, also mentioned in the Greek Red Data Book as an "Endangered" species. Although there is not enough quantitative data it is known that a very small seal colony occupies the steep rocky coasts of the two islands of the site, especially those of their western part. The presence of the common dolphin is of at least equal importance. The site represents one of the two last spots for th species in the entire Ionian and Adriatic Sea (the second being the inner Ionian Sea area), since it has declined to extinction from the waters of all other neighboring countries. A small number of resident individuals of the species still survive in the area, representing probably the remains of a severely declined (and supposedly formerly big) Adriatic-Ionian "population". (Bearzi et al. 2003, 2005, 2008). The Mediterranean population of common dolphins was classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals in 2003. ACCOBAMS had listed the Mediterranean common dolphins as priority species since its first steps and presented a comprehensive Conservation Plan dedicated important part on the area of this Natura site in 2004. The entire Mediterranean population of common dolphins was included in Appendix I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention - CMS) in 2005. The Scientific Committee of ACCOBAMS recommended immediate financial and institutional support to small-scale projects for common dolphin conservation also in 2005. The 3rd Meeting of the Parties to ACCOBAMS was “deeply concerned that despite the strong scientific evidence, strategic planning and multiple expressions of concern and recommendations, inter alia by the ACCOBAMS Scientific Committee and relevant ACCOBAMS Partners, insufficient action has been taken to ensure recovery of the common dolphin in the region” in 2007. The Parties were therefore urged to implement the conservation plan for common dolphins and introduce relevant activities into their national action plans. The Secretariat of ACCOBAMS was requested to convey the international concern for common dolphins to the environment and fisheries directorates of the European Commission, in particular for the inclusion of the common dolphin in Annex 2 to the Habitat Directive (Resolution 3.17). Finally, in 2009 thirteen supranational, Spanish, Italian, Croatian, Slovenian, Swiss and Greek organizations made an urgent call towards all relevant authorities, in order to stress out the need of conservation measures for one of the last strongholds of the endangered common dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea, which is the sea area of this Natura site in the inner Ionian Sea. The remaining non-bird vertebrate fauna, which can be considered as important, according to the criteria of section 3.3, consists of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), the Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and some reptile taxa. The striped dolphin and the fin whale are "Vulnerable" Mediterranean species according to IUCN (motivation A). All these taxa are protected by the Bern Convention, the cetacean species also being protected by the CITES Convention (motivation C). The agamid lizard Agama stellio and the colubrid snake Elaphe longissima are already evaluated by the CORINE-Biotopes Project (motivation D). Also, they are protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981) receiving motivation D for this reason but there are additional reasons justifying the same motivation being given to some taxa. Maquis and phrygana occurring in the area are considered as representative types of the Mediterranean vegetation. The clusters of Cupressus sempervirens common throughout the main island are considered as remnants of a former Cupressus forest. Noteworthy is also the presence of two local endemic plant species within this site, Centaurea paxorum and Limonium antipaxorum, which, without doubt, should be included in the Red Data Book of Greek Plants.From the Other Important Species of Flora and Fauna in sections 3.3 the following taxa are included with motivation D, for the reasons mentioned below:á) Hyoseris radiata is an important species from biogeographical point of view as it shows a peculiar distribution in Greece (it is only known from the small islets of the Aegean area and the island of Crete).b) Orchis coriophora because Orchidaceae are always attractive and interesting species.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MA04i
ME01.01i
ME03.01i
LE03.01i
MF02b
HF02.01b
MF02.01.02b
HF02.02.01o
MF02.03b
MF02.03.03b
MF03.01i
HF03.02.05i
LF05.01b
LF05.02b
MF05.04b
HG01.04.03i
LG05.01b
HG05.02b
MG05.02b
HG05.03i
HG05.07b
LG05.11i
LH01i
LH01.03i
LH01.08b
MH03.01b
MH03.03i
MH03.03b
MI01b
MI02b
MJ01i
MJ03.01b
HM01.01b
MM02.01b
MXOb
HXOb
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]
GR00100.00

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:FOREST DIRECTORATE OF LASITHI
Address:
Email:

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY