Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Date site proposed as SCI:1997-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR41Voreio Aigaio

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1120  info      0.00   
1170  info      0.00   
1240  info      0.00   
1310  info      0.00   
2110  info      0.00         
2260  info      0.00   
3170  info      0.00   
3290  info      0.00         
4090  info      0.00   
5210  info      0.00   
5330  info      0.00   
5420  info      0.00   
6220  info      0.00   
8210  info      0.00   
8220  info      0.00   
8310  info      0.00   
9260  info      0.00   
92C0  info      0.00   
92D0  info      0.00   
9320  info      0.00   
9340  info      0.00   
9540  info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
I1078Callimorpha quadripunctaria           
P1495Iberis runemarkii           
R1222Mauremys caspica           
M1366Monachus monachus    10     
M1307Myotis blythii           
M1321Myotis emarginatus           
M1306Rhinolophus blasii           
P1459Silene holzmanii           
M1349Tursiops truncatus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
Agama stellio                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
Campanula hagielia                   
Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta                   
Cephalaria squamiflora ssp. squamiflora                   
1278Coluber caspius                   
Corydalis integra                   
Cyrtodactylus kotschyi                   
Dianthus elegans                   
Digitalis cariensis                   
1282Eirenis modesta                   
Erysimum senoneri ssp. icaricum                   
Fritillaria bithynica                   
Galanthus ikariae ssp. ikariae                   
Hypericum cuisinii                   
Linum gyaricum                   
Malpolon monspessulanus                   
Muscari macrocarpum                   
Nigella icarica                   
Onopordum majorii                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1268Ophisops elegans                   
Polygonum icaricum                   
Pteris dentata                   
Ptilostemon gnaphaloides ssp. pseudofruticosus                   
Ranunculus thasius                   
Rorippa icarica                   
Saturnia pyri                   
Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. icarica                   
Symphytum icaricum                   
Verbascum ikaricum                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The island of Icaria is situated at the east central part of the Aegean sea, SW of Samos island and close to Asia Minor coasts. The climate is typical Mediterranean with mean annual rainfall exceeding 870 mm. The annual mean temperature reaches up to 19.3 °C, while its maximum and minimum values are 22.5 and 15.7 °C. Mount Atheras (the highest summit, 1042 m) is located at central Icaria and consists mostly of schist. Frequent mist and cloud formation make the highest part relatively humid even in summer. Here the open type of vegetation is the result of grazing; the small thickets at a few protected spots indicate, that the island was once totally covered by forest.On the southern side (Agios Nikolaos) there are large, well developed limestone cliffs. A significant proportion of the endemic flora of the island is present in that part. There is also a constantly flowing river (habitat type 3170), Chalaris, that crosses the island from the south to the north, with oriental plane woods flanking its banks (habitat type 92C0). An archaeological site, the temple of Tavropolos Artemis, is situated at the mouth of the river. It must be mentioned that: a) habitat type 9540 concerns Pinus brutia forests; b) habitat type 9340 describes Quercus ilex arborescent formations.The third area, Fanari, includes mainly the marine habitat types of the site, typical of the open sea and mediterranean marine environment, with sandy shores and Posidonia beds.Fournoi consist a complex of small islands SE of Icaria island. It’s noteworthy to mention, that even though their total surface is relatively small, their coasts (about 126 Km in length) are characterised by most typical aegean cliffs, reefs and cavities.

4.2 Quality and importance

A main element of the quality and importance of the site is its high biodiversity, explicit in the variety of habitat types and in the plenitude of endemic and local endemic plants and invertebrates existing in the area. This high degree of endemism (e.g, species endemic to Ikaria, such as Symphytum icaricum and species endemic to the East Aegean, such as Cephalaria squamiflora ssp. squamiflora, Onopordum majorii and Arenaria muralis), derives mainly from the geographical location of Icaria island (very close to Asia Minor) as well as from the high altitudes and the fair variety of biotopes existing within the proposed site. It must be mentioned, as well, that due to the isolation from the main tourist areas of Greece and the limited human activities within the site, the Pinus brutia forests and the mixed Cupressus sempervirens formations on Icaria island are at a very good conservation status. Most noteworthy is the presence of the local endemic and endangered species Iberis arbuscula (previously Iberis runemarkii) listed in section 3.2.g., Annex II plants which is protected by the Bern Convention and by the Greek Law (Presidential Decreee 67/81). Only one population of this species is known, north of Plagia. In addition, the undisturbed marine biotopes which maintain an excellent conservation status, mainly on Fournoi islands, offer a representative ecosystem for the survival and conservation of rare or endangered species in the Mediterranean region, such as the monk seal (Monachus monachus) and dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Fournoi islands, an area of significant aesthetic and ecological value, function as an important shelter for birds of prey, for instance Hieraaetus sp. or Falco sp., due to their position at eastern part of the Aegean Sea and the neighbouring to the mainland of Asia Minor. It is also a very important staging post for bird migration on their seasonal coast flyway. It is for the above reasons that this area forms an environment ideal for the creation of an east-mediterranean marine park. OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The endemic species Linum gyaricum, Verbascum ikaricum, Nigella icarica, Polygonum icaricum, Symphytum icarisum (a local endemic), Rorippa icarica are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the European Red List of Globally threatened plants and in the IUCN Red Data List (1993), in the category of threatened plants characterised as Rare, all except O. majorii whose degree of threat is inteterminate. The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1988, 1993) in the category of threatened plants: Pteris dentata (endangered, in Greece and Europe while its World status is unknown); Corydalis integra, Muscari macrocarpum and Galanthus ikariae (rare in Greece and in Europe), all endemic to the East Mediterranean Region; Campanula hagielia (rare) also included in European List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants. Galanthus ikariae is also protected by the CITES convention, Annex BII). The species Digitalis cariensis (only in Ikaria in Greece), Dianthus elegans and Symphytum anatolicum are mediterranean endemics, occurring in Anatolia and only in the East Aegan islands in Europe; Luzula nodulosa is endemic to the East Mediterranean Region, occurring only in S Greece and Aegean islands in Europe. Amphibians: Bufo viridis is included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC and in the CORINE-Checklist of threatened animals and is protected by the Greek law (Presidential Decree 67/1981). Mammals: Stenella caeruleoalba is included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC and is protected by CITES 1973. Reptiles: Ophisops elegans, Agama stellio, Ophiosaurus apodus and Coluber jugularis are included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC and protected by the Greek law (Presidential Decree 67/1981). The species Cyrtodactylus kotschyii and Malpolon monspessulanus are protected by the Greek law 67/1981. Ablepharus kitaibelii is included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC and is considered an important species in Europe (Koomen & van Helsdingen, 1993). In addition, the species Ophisops elegans, Agama stellio and Cyrtodactylus kotschyii are included in Corine-Checklist of threatened animals.Invertebrates: The species Hipparchia aristaeus and Gonepteryx rhamni are protected by the Greek law (Presidential Decree 67/1981). The species Hydraena subinoides is in need of protection (M. Jaech). Another species, Saturnia pyri, is included in IUCN (1988) list of threatened species.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1) Archives of the Hellenic Zoological Society. (3.2.c, 3.3.) 2) Broggi M. F. Herpetological observation on greek islands, renowns on biotope and deserve conservation. Herpetozoa 7 (1/2), 29-34. (3.2.b, 3.3) 3) Calabresi E. 1923. Escursioni Zoologiche del Bott. E. festa nell’ Isola di Rodi. Amfibi e Rettili. Bull. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 38, no 9, 1-16. (3.3) 4) Chondropoulos B. 1989. A checklist of Greek Reptiles. II. The snakes, Herpetozoa 2 (1/2) : 3-36. (3.2.c) 5) Christodoulakis D. 1986. I hlorida kai i vlastisi tis Samou (The flora and the vegetation of the island of Samos). Ph.D. thesis, Patras, Greece. p. 382. (3.3, 3.4) 6) CORINE Information System, European Environment Agency, CORINE Biotopes, 1991. (3.3, 3.4, 3.2.c) 7) D’ Orchymout. 1944. Hydraena (s. str) nouvelles des regions Mediterraneenes Orientales (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae). Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique 20:1-16. (3.4) 8) Davis P.H. et al. (eds). I. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol 1-10, 1965-1988. Edinburgh.(3.3, 3.4) 9) Greuter W., H. M. Burdet & G. Long (ed). 1984. Med-Checklist. Vol. 1. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Geneve. (3.3, 3.4) 10) Guignot F. 1949. Note sur les Hydrocanthares. Bull. Inst. R. Sci. net. Belg. 25(6):1-18. (3.4) 11) Holzschuh C. 1979. Vier neue Bockkaefer aus der palaearktischen Region (Col. Cerambycidae). Koleopt. Rdsch. Band 54, 113-118. (3.4) 12) Jach M. Personal Communication (Legakis A. Threatened, Protected and Endemic animal species of Greece. 1995). (3.4) 13) Klausnitzer B. 1980. New species of the genus Helodes Latreille from Greece (Col. Helodidae) Aquat Insects Vol 2 (2):123-128. (3.4) 14) Koomen P. van Helsdingen P.J. 1993. Listing of Biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates. Council of Europe T-PV (93) 43, 74 pp. (3.3) 15) Koutsaftikis 1973. Zur oekologie und chorologie der Satyriden-fauna Griechenlands (Lepidoptera, Satyridae). Zeits. der Arbeitsgem. Oesten Entomologen, 25Jg 3/4 120-128. (3.3) 16) Marches-Sanx D. 1980. A review of the current knowledge of cetaceus in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Vie Marine 2:59-66. (3.4) 17) Ministry of Youth, 1984. (Work Team: Thanos C., D. Yiotis, E. Zalahori, S. Makrydakis, V. Oikonomopoulos, A. Orfanou, K. Paragkamian & A. Skordilis) Oikologikes protovoulies neon. Fournoi, Meleti oikologikis kai koinonikis katastasis (Fournoi Islands, A study of Ecological and Sociological Status.). Athens, p. 112 (3.3.2, 3.3, 3.2.c, 4.1) 18) Ondrias S.C. 1964. Statut taxinomique actuel de rongeurs de Grece, Mammalia 25(1):22-28. (3.2.c) 19) Osella 1980. Due nuovi Curculionidi anoftalini del Mediterraneo orientale (Coleoptera). Revue suisse Zool. 87 (3):8, 13-19. (3.4) 20) Proedriko Diatagma 67/81 (Greek Presidential decree 67/81). 21) Rechinger K.H. and F. Rechinger Moser. 1950. Phytogeographia Aegea, p. 208. (3.3, 3.4) 22) Runemark H. , S. Snogerup, B. Nordestam. 1960. Studies in the Aegean Flora. Botaniska Notizer, V113 (4), 421-451. (3.3, 3.4) 23) Sfendourakis, S. 1994. Viogeographia, systimatiki kai stoichia oikologias ton cherseon isopodon sta nisia tou kentrikou Aigaiou (Biogeography, systematics and elements of ecology of terrestrial isopoda on the islands of the central Aegean). Ph.D.Thesis, Dept. of Biology of the University of Athens, Sector of Ecology & Taxonomy, p. 293. (3.4) 24) Snogerup B. Survey map of the Aegean. Some especially important concentrations of endemic taxa are shown. (3.2.g) 25) Van Laar V. & Daan S. 1964. On some chiroptera from Greece. Beaufortia 10 (120):158-166. (3.2.c) 26) Vassilaina Alexopoulou et Mourikis. 1985. Notes of Lepidoptera fauna of Icaria. Biolgallohell. 10:307-313. (3.2.f) 27) Watson G. E. 1964. Ecology and evolution of passerine birds on the islands of the Aegean Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Ann. Arbor. Michigan, USA, 406 pp. (3.2.b) 28) Werner F. 1938. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Griechenlands. Zoologica 35:1-117. (3.2.c, 3.3) 29) Wettstein O. O. 1953. Herpetologia Aegea. Sitz. ber. Oestrr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 162: 651-833. (3.2.c) 30) Witmer 1974. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der palaearktischen Cantharidae und Malachiidae (Coleoptera). Fragment vol 10 (I):1-3. (3.4) 31) Council of Europe. Vicky Morgan Christine Leon (eds). Datasheets of flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. No 63, p. 106. Council of Europe Press. (3.2.g, 4.2) 32) Eiselt S & Schmidtler J.F. 1986. Der lacerta danfordi Komplex (Reptilia, Lacertidae) Spixiana 9(3):289-328 (3.2.d.) 33) Morgan V & C. Leon. 1992. Datasheets of Flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. Nature and Envrionment. No 63 p. 106. Council of Europe, Publishing and Documentaion Service, Strasbourg. (3.2.g.) 34) Georghiou K. 1995. Checklist of Endemic, Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Draft. University of Athens. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2) 35) Stearn W. 1986. The Greek species of Symphytum (Boraginaceae). Ann.Mus. Goul. 7:175-220. (3.4)


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
IN06Nisoi fournoi+0.00
IN06Nisos Ikaria-0.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Nisoi fournoi+0.00
Nisos Ikaria-0.00


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Fire prevention plan.



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