Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Date site proposed as SCI:1997-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
3290  info      0.00   
4090  info      0.00   
5420  info      0.00   
5430  info      0.00   
8140  info      0.00   
8210  info      0.00   
8310  info      0.00   
9290  info      0.00   
92C0  info      0.00   
92D0  info      0.00   
9320  info      0.00   
9540  info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA091Aquila chrysaetos           
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
P1901Cephalanthera cucullata    50     
P1663Convolvulus argyrothamnus           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
R1293Elaphe situla           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA076Gypaetus barbatus           
BA078Gyps fulvus    51  100     
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus           
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus       
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA246Lullula arborea           
P1685Origanum dictamnus           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA346Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax           
M1304Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum           
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
P1436Zelkova abelicea           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Allium callimischon ssp. haemostictum                   
Alyssum idaeum                   
Alyssum lassiticum                   
Arenaria fragillima                   
Arenaria saponarioides                   
Arum idaeum                   
Asperula rigida                   
Astragalus idaeus                   
Avenula cycladum                   
Campanula pelviformis                   
Chaenorhinum idaeum                   
1274Chalcides ocellatus                   
Cirsium creticum ssp. dictaeum                   
Colchicum cretense                   
Coluber gemonensis                   
Cotoneaster nummularia                   
Crocus oreocreticus                   
Crocus sieberi ssp. sieberi                   
Cyclamen creticum                   
Draba cretica                   
Epipactis cretica                   
Erysimum mutabile                   
Galium incanum ssp. creticum                   
Galium samothracicum                   
Geocaryum creticum                   
Inula candida ssp. decalvans                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
Martes foina bunites                   
Polygonum idaeum                   
Ranunculus cupreus                   
Scabiosa minoana ssp. minoana                   
Scorzonera idaea                   
Sedum creticum                   
Sedum praesidis                   
Silene multicaulis ssp. cretica                   
Silene thessalonica ssp. dictaea                   
Silene variegata                   
1289Telescopus fallax                   
Thlaspi creticum                   
Tragopogon lassithicus                   
Tulipa cretica                   
Vincetoxicum creticum                   
Viola cretica                   
Viola fragrans                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The area is located at the central-east part of Crete and is characterized by a belt of mountains, Dikti (altitude 2148 m, one of the three principal mountains of Crete), Selekano, Katharo, and Selena, which surround the biggest plateau of Crete, Lasithi (at 800 m altitude). The biggets part of the site is covered by large rugged mountains and gorges. The dolines are of special interest; the wet dolines are characterized by scanty vegetation of annuals common in other places but rare in Crete while the dry dolines are characterized by dense vegetation and, in Dikti, by the occurence of Polygonum idaeum, specialized in this type of habitat and confined to Psiloritis and Dikti. The characteristic types of vegetation is phrygana.The plateau is cultivated. A small part of the site is covered by vineyards. Finally, there is riparian vegetation with common perrenials or annuals (the vegetation of a constantly flowing mediterranean river with gravel bed, usually pebbles, a habitat type not included in Annex I).

4.2 Quality and importance

The following elements comprise the ecological quality and importance of the site: 1) A great variety of habitat types, mostly well conserved: Quercus coccifera forests (it is noteworthy that the tree form of Quercus coccifera is unusual outside Crete and Peloponnese); a Quercus ilex forest, the unique large forest of the species in Crete (approximately 700 ha); Pinr forest (Pinus brutia); low-, mid- and high-elevation phryganas; and a great number of caves. 2) Its flora is extremely rich in common species and in rare and vulnerable endemic species, mostly cretan; moreover, some of them are stenoendemics, exclusively found in the site or in the mountains of Crete. Alyssum lasithicum, Cirsium creticum ssp. dictaeum, Galium incanum ssp. creticum, Silene thessalonica ssp. dictaea, Tragopogon lassithicus, Inula candida ssp. decalvans (=Inula pseudolimonella), Scabiosa minoana ssp. minoana (=Lomelosia minoana ssp. minoana), Astragalus nummularius, and Silene multicaulis ssp. cretica are endemic to the site.; Asplenium creticum, Hypochoeris tenuiflora, Origanum microphyllum, Cuscuta atrans, Silene andri-jovis, Astragalus idaeus, Geocarium creticum, and Epipactis cretica are endemic to the mountains of Crete. 3) its fauna, although it needs further investigation, is expected to be rich in endemic and rare species, such as species of gastropods. The gastropods listed in 3.3. (Other important species, Greek) are endemic to Crete or to Crete and to the little islands around. Oxychilus amalthae is a stenoendemic gastropod, exclusively found in the cave of Diktaion Adron and in danger of extinction. The fauna also includes a narrow endemic amphibian subspecies, Hyla arborea ssp. cretensis and an endemic to Crete mammal, Apodemus sylvaticus creticus. Besides, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum ssp. creticum, included in section 3.2.c. as Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, is a subspecies endemic to Crete.There are also colonies of vultures (Gyps fulvus) at most of the mountains and gorges with the population at the gorge of Gonion being the most typical. 4) The plateau of Lassithi produces the majority of Crete's potato crops. It also has a unique in Crete old venetian drainage system and there are hundreds of windmillds used as water pumps and composing a rare aesthetic landscape. 5) There are still vineyards with old varieties of vines at the slopes of Selekanos. 6) There are many caves with endemic fauna. 7) There are many and scientifically important fossils at Katharo mountains. OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION D. Plants:The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants: Cotoneaster nummularia (vulnerable), Cuscuta atrans (indeterminate). The following species, which are endemic to the mountains of Crete, are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81): Alyssum idaeum, Alyssum lassithicum, Arenaria fragilima, Arenaria saponarioides, Chaenorrhinum idaeum, Cyclamen cretica, Dianthus juniperinus ssp. aciphyllus, Ranunculus cupreus, Scorzonera idaea, Scilla nana (including Chinodoxa nana), Tragopogon lassithicus, Tulipa cretica, Paeonia clusii ssp. clusii, Inula candida ssp. decalvans (=Inula pseudolimonella). Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania). Orchis anatolica ssp. sitiaca, Orchis anatolica ssp. anatolica are protected by the CITES Convention (Annex C). Orchis anatolica ssp. sitiaca is also protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). Allium callimischon ssp. haemostictum is a plant with distribution in Greece and SW Turkey. Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum is a Balkan endemic. Satureja spinosa is a species with distribution in Crete and the East Aegean found only in SW Anatolia out of Greece. Reptiles: the species in section 3.3 areimportant because of their small populations with discontinuous areas of distribution and, besides being protected by the Bern Convention, they are also protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. is a threatened species (IUCN, 1993).

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1) Bate D.. 1905. On the mammals of Crete. Ibis 103a: 503-514. 2) Fillipakis M. 1992. General plan forestry development of Lasithi district. Forestry Division of Lasithi District, p. 110. (in greek). 3) Greuter W. 1973. Additions to the flora of Crete, 1938-1972. Annls Mus. Goulsndris 1: 15-83. 4) Greuter W, U. Matthas & H. Risse. 1984. Additions to the flora of Crete, 1973-1983. I. Widenowia 14: 27-36. 5) Greuter W, U. Matthas & H. Risse. 1984. Additions to the flora of Crete, 1973-1983. II. Widenowia 14: 269-297. 6) Greuter W, U. Matthas & H. Risse. 1985. Additions to the flora of Crete, 1973-1983. III. Widenowia 14: 23-60. 7) Kypriotakis Z. & G. Tsiourlis. Vegetation map of Crete. Unpublished data. 8) Kypriotakis Z. Unpublished data. 9) Laurita Longo F. 1967. First study of management of mountain Dikti (island of Crete). Ministry of Agriculture, p. 250. (in greek). 10) Miller. 1910. 11) Ondrias. 1965. (Archives of the Hellenic Zoological Society, Legakis). 12) Platakis E. 1973. Caves and other karstic formations of Crete. Vol. 1, p. 414. 13) Platakis E. 1973. Caves and other karstic formations of Crete. Vol. 2, p. 275. 14) Paragkamian K. Unpublished data. 15) Rackham O., A.D. Grove & J.A. Moody (eds). 1990. Petromarula 1: Stability and change in the Cretan landscape. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Great Britain, p. 88. 16) Sowig, P. 1985. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Verbeitung und Okologie der Amphibian und Reptilien Kretas. Salamandra 21(4): 252-262. 17) Egli B.R. 1991. The special flora, ecological and edaphic conditions of dolines in the mountains of Crete. Bot. Chron. 10:325-335. 18) Strid A. 1986 Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 822. 19) Strid A. & Kit Tan. 1991. Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol 2. Edinburgh University Press. p. 974. 20) Turland N.J., Chilton L., Press J.R. 1993. Flora of the Cretan area. London: HMSO. 21) Tutin T.G. 1964-1978. Flora Europea. Cambridge University Press. 5 22) Vardinoyannis K. 1994. Biogeografia ton chersaion malakion sto notio nisiotiko Aigaiako toxo (Biogeography of land snails in the south Aegean island arc). Ph.D. Thesis. Athens University. 23) Wettestein O, Herpetologia aegea. Sber. Osterr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Abt. 1, Wien 162 (9/10): 651-883. 24) Zaffran J. 1990. Contributions a la flore et la vegetation de la Grete. Universite de Provence, p. 650. 25) Zacharis A. 1977. Forests of Crete. Apo tin Archaiotita os Simera (From Antiquity to Today). Ministry of Agriculture - General Forestry Division, p. 146. 26) Zohary M. & G. Orshan. 1965. An outline of the Geobotany of Crete. Israel Journ. Bot. 14: 1-49. 27) Kypriotakis Z. Plants of Crete. Unpublished Data. 28) Matthas U. 1991. Phytogeographical and taxonomic problems of the deciduous oaks of Crete. Bot. Chron. 10:635-640. 29) Georghiou K. 1995. Checklist of Endemic, Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Draft. University of Athens. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2) 30) Morgan V & C. Leon. 1992. Datasheets of Flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. Nature and Envrionment. No 63 p. 106. Council of Europe, Publishing and Documentaion Service, Strasbourg. (3.2.g.)


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR95Ano Limnion Dimou Mallion*0.11
GR95Plathiani Lagkada Dimou Oropediou+1.53
GR95Chalasia (Zenion-Exo Potamon-Mesa Lasithiou)+2.35
GR95Amiron, Kefalovrysiou Dimou Viannou*3.33
IN06Oros Dikti-0.00
GR95Selakano Dimou Ierapetras*4.97
IN06Oros Dikti-0.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Ano Limnion Dimou Mallion*0.11
Plathiani Lagkada Dimou Oropediou+1.53
Chalasia (Zenion-Exo Potamon-Mesa Lasithiou)+2.35
Amiron, Kefalovrysiou Dimou Viannou*3.33
Oros Dikti-0.00
Selakano Dimou Ierapetras*4.97
Oros Dikti-0.00


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management study for Katharo forest. Management of grazing (2004, 2005), tree felling (2005).



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