Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

B

1.2 Site code

GR4320006

1.3 Site name

VOREIOANATOLIKO AKRO KRITIS: DIONYSADES, ELASA KAI CHERSONISOS SIDERO (AKRA MAVRO MOURI – VAI – AKRA PLAKAS) KAI THALASSIA ZONI

1.4 First Compilation date

1995-04

1.5 Update date

2016-12
Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:26.249610
Latitude:35.231108

2.2 Area [ha]

39415.7600

2.3 Marine area [%]

80.9900

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR43Kriti

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      23605  0.00 
1120  info  X     142  0.00   
1150  info  X     1.52609  0.00         
1170  info      2818  0.00   
1240  info      364.861  0.00 
1310  info      0.613965  0.00 
1410  info      1.12674  0.00 
1420  info      5.15255  0.00 
1430  info      0.74061  0.00 
2110  info      1.10595  0.00 
2230  info      1.47274  0.00 
3290  info      0.00         
5210  info      135.738  0.00 
5330  info      11.8839  0.00 
5420  info      5397.46  0.00 
6220  info  X     39.7742  0.00 
7210  info  X     0.375921  0.00 
8210  info      0.200557  0.00 
8330  info      0.00   
92D0  info      0.960169  0.00 
9320  info      64.7623  0.00 
9370  info  X     19.0789  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
P4082Crepis pusilla    grids1x1   
P1896Phoenix theophrasti    5728  6728   
P1459Silene holzmannii    5723  5732   
M1349Tursiops truncatus                       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Allium longanum                   
Allium rubrovittatum                   
Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
Anthemis ammanthus ssp. ammanthus                   
Anthemis ammanthus ssp. paleacea                   
Anthemis filicaulis                   
Arenaria aegaea                   
Asperula crassula                   
Asperula rigida                   
Atriplex recurva                   
Axinella damicornis                   
Axinella polypoides                   
Axinella spp                   
Campanula creutzburgii                   
Campanula pelviformis                   
Carlina diae                   
Carlina diae                   
Caryophyllia sp                   
Caulerpa cylindracea                   
Centaurea aegialophila                   
Centaurea idaea                   
Cistanche phelypaea                   
Corynactis viridis                   
Crepis tybakiensis                   
Crocus tournefortii                   
Cyclamen creticum                   
Cymbalaria microcalyx ssp. dodekanesi                   
Cymodocea nodosa                   
Cynara cornigera                   
Cystoseira crinitophylla                   
Cystoseira spinosa                   
Cystoseira spp                   
Cystoseira spp                   
Dianthus fruticosus ssp. amorginus                   
Ebenus cretica                   
Fibigia lunarioides                   
Filago aegaea ssp. aristata                   
Ganonema farinosum                   
Halophila stipulacea                   
Hypericum amblycalyx                   
Leptopsammia pruvoti                   
Limonium frederici                   
Lithophyllum tortuosum                   
Lygeum spartum                   
Melobesioideae                   
Nepeta melissifolia                   
Onosma graeca                   
Ophrys fusca                     
Ophrys fusca                     
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Paracentrotus lividus                    
Paracentrotus lividus                    
Percnon gibbesi                   
Phlomis lanata                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
Polycyathus muellerae                   
Ricotia cretica                   
Salsola aegaea                   
Sarcotragus foetidus                   
Scutellaria sieberi                   
Serratula cichoracea ssp. cretica                   
Seseli gummiferum ssp. crithmifolium                   
Siganus luridus                   
Siganus rivulatus                   
Siganus rivulatus                   
Silene fabaria                   
Sparisoma cretense                   
Sphaerechinus granularis                   
Stachys spinosa                   
Synaptula reciprocans                   
Tenarea tortuosa                   
Teucrium alpestre                   
Teucrium brevifolium                   
Titanoderma sp.                   
Titanoderma trochanter                   
Tonna galea                   
Torquigener flavimaculosus                   
Trigonella rechingeri                   
Tulipa cretica                   
Tulipa saxatilis                   
Valeriana asarifolia                   
Viola scorpiuroides                   
Xyrichtys novacula                   
Xyrichtys novacula                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0142.91
N020.01
N030.01
N044.54
N050.95
N060.13
N0841.86
N090.25
N158.18
N180.71
N220.01
N230.44

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

The site, the northeastern part of Crete, includes the easternmost area of the island, the peninsula of Sidero, and the nearby islets, Dyonisades and Elasa. Geologically this area of Crete consists of limestones and dolomites of the upper Cretaceous, bedded crystalline limestones of the Permian, phylites and neogene and alluvial deposits. The vegetation is mainly phrygana. There are a lot of valleys with maquis, some of them degrading. The palm forest (Phoenix theophrastii) of Vai, unique in Europe, is situated in a coastal valley, on the easternmost coast of Crete. This part of Crete is one of the driest parts of Greece. Almost all streams dry up during summer; they are surrounded by a typical vegetation of Oleanders, etc. There are 2-3 villages in the area. There are plantations of bananas in greenhouses while the land near the villages is cultivated. At the eastern coast there are a lot of sand dunes, mainly between the palm forest and the sea and east of Palaikastro at Grantes gulf. On the west side of Sidero peninsula there are Posidonia beds and flocs of Tursiops truncatus have been observed. On the tip of Sidero peninsula there is a military base. The nearby islets are uninhabited. The Dyonisades islets group consists of Permian limestone while Elasa islet consists of dolomites and limestones of upper Cretaceous. The vegetation on the islets is phrygana. Near the sea there are halophilous plants. In the larger islet of Dyonisades group as well as on the opposite coast of Crete the coastline is characterized by sea cliffs. In 2015, the site was extended 2nm off the Cretan and surrounding islet coasts, to include important and vulnerable habitats of the circalittoral and deep zone, including biodiversity-rich facies of coralligenous assemblages (deep counterpart of Habitat Type 1170), and extensive detritic and rhodolith beds, at depths below ~40m. Several islets, reefs and shoals add to the geographic and topographic complexity of the site.

4.2 Quality and importance

The whole area is very important for its flora and fauna, both marine and terrestrial. The palm forest is one of the most important characteristics of the area. It reaches an area of 20 ha. The forest has already been characterized as an aesthetic forest (979/85) and it is under the management of the Forestry Department and it is also a Special Protection Area (SPA) and a site protected by the Barcelona Convention. Most of the plants which are listed in 3.3 are endemic. There are some plants that their presence in the area is the only (or one of the few) European presence of the species. The species Cistanche phelypea (motivation D) is a plant of the African deserts but it is rarely found in the sites area; in Crete it is near the northern limits of its distribution and otherwise it occurs only in the Iberian peninsula in Europe. Allium longanum (rare in Greece and vulnerable in the world according to IUCN, 1993) is found in very few south Aegean islands and islets and also in Libya and Egypt. Also the African species Viola scorpiuroides (motivation D) is found in Crete and in Libya. The species Onosma graeca (motivation D) is generally found in NW Anatolia, out of Greece. Filago aegaea ssp. aristata (motivation D) is a plant with distribution in S & E Aegean, Ionian Islands, Kriti and Cyprus. Cynara cornigera (motivation D) is a species with distribution in S. Greece, the Aegean and Cyprus. Silene fabaria (motivation D) is an Aegean region endemic (occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece). Teucrium brevifolium (motivation D) is found in Anatolia, Egypt and Libya out of Greece. Most of the plants can be characterized as rare, some species are considered vulnerable, while relatively few species are common in the area and in the country. The following species is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and is included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Plants characterized as «rare»: Viola scorpiuroides (motivation D). The following species is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and is included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants: Centaurea aegialophila (vulnerable).Tulipa saxatilis (motivation D) is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). Lygeum spartum (motivation D) in the area is important. This species belongs to the desert-like floristic element, occurring only in steppe communities in Crete in Greece (it occurs at similar habitats in Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy in Europe); it is one of the very rare grasses in Greece (Damanakis & Scholz, 1990). Distribution in Europe: at similar habitats. Note: The IUCN characterizations given concern the plants status in Greece unless otherwise stated. Concerning the animals, there are a lot of invertebrate endemic species and some vertebrate endemic subspecies. Regarding the reptiles it can be said that their presence is quite important. On Crete the reptiles are found in isolated small populations while on the islets there are endemic subspecies. Most species of the land snails mentioned in 3.3. are endemic of the site or of Crete. The Dyonisades group has been characterized as an Important Bird Area, especially for birds that live at cliffs. The sea fauna and flora is quite interesting since in this area. Apart from the important species of fauna and flora there are also archaeological and fossil findings in the area. Various facies of coralligenous assemblages (deep counterpart of Habitat Type 1170) occur along the steep rocky coasts and reefs of the site, mostly at depths below ~40m. Extensive detritic and rhodolith beds (important deep subtypes for Habitat Type 1110) dominate the circalittoral sedimentary bottoms of the area at depths between 50-150m. The uninhabited islet complex of Dionyssades presents llittoral biogenic rims of Lithophyllum tortuosum and Titanoderma trochanter, and support some otherwise rare for this area marine invertebrates (i.e. Corynactis viridis, Leptopsammia pruvoti, Charonia variegata). Increased nutrient and organic pollution was detected on Fish farming and hatching activities in the wider Antikiari bay were found to exert significant pollution effect on the shallow rocks and Posidonia beds. Signs of organic pollution were also detected in Analoukas bay. The alien fish species Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus, well-established and abundant in the wider area, are exerting significant herbivore pressure on the rocky infralittoral zone, as indicated by a dramatic decline in the cover of Cystoseira canopies and the prolific dominance of filamentous turf algae. Lagocephalus sceleratus and Torquigener flavimaculosus are also present but unassessed. Other common aliens of lesser or yet insignificant impact are the green algae Caulerpa cylindracea, the red algae Ganonema farinosum, the crab Percnon gibbesi, and the sea cucumber Synaptula reciprocans

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
LA01i
MA04o
HA04i
HB02.03i
MB02.03o
MD03.03b
ME01.03b
ME03.01i
LE03.01i
HF01i
HF01.01i
MF02b
HF02.01b
MF02.01.02b
MF02.02.02i
MF02.03i
HF02.03b
MF02.03.03b
HF02.03.03b
HF03.01i
MF03.02.05b
MF05b
MF05.01b
LF05.01b
MF05.04b
MF05.05b
MF06b
MG01.01.01b
MG01.04.03b
LG05.01b
MG05.02b
LG05.02b
MG05.03i
HG05.07b
MH01b
MH01i
HH01.03i
LH01.05b
MH03.01b
MH03.03b
LH03.03b
HI01b
LJ01i
HJ03.01b
ML05b
HM01.01b
MM01.07b
HM02.01b
HM02.03b
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MA01o
MF02.03i

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]
GR120.13
GR955.77
IN040.13

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR95Pla? Marazaki Dimou Itanou*1.02
GR95Va? Dimou Itanou*0.68
GR95Dionysades nisoi Dimou Siteias+4.07
GR12Foinikodasos Vai Lasithiou*0.13

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other Pla? Marazaki Dimou Itanou*1.02
Va? Dimou Itanou*0.68
Dionysades nisoi Dimou Siteias+4.07
Foinikodasos Vai Lasithiou*0.13

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY