Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type1.2 Site code
BGR4320006

1.3 Site name

VOREIOANATOLIKO AKRO KRITIS: DIONYSADES, ELASA KAI CHERSONISOS SIDERO (AKRA MAVRO MOURI - VAI - AKRA PLAKAS) KAI THALASSIA ZONI
1.4 First Compilation date1.5 Update date
1995-042009-05

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:
Address:               
Email:
Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude

26.251667

Latitude

35.235833

2.2 Area [ha]:

2.3 Marine area [%]

13072.70000.0000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code

Region Name

GR43Kriti

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1120info      0.00   
1150info      0.00   
1170info      0.00   
1210info      0.00   
1240info      0.00   
1310info      0.00   
1430info      0.00   
2110info      0.00   
2120info      0.00   
3290info      0.00         
5210info      0.00   
5330info      0.00   
5420info      0.00   
6220info      0.00   
8210info      0.00   
8310info      0.00   
9320info      0.00   
9370info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus           
BA294Acrocephalus paludicola           
BA296Acrocephalus palustris           
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus           
BA168Actitis hypoleucos           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus    10  10     
BA228Apus melba    10  10     
BA227Apus pallidus       
BA091Aquila chrysaetos           
BA089Aquila pomarina           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA149Calidris alpina           
BA147Calidris ferruginea           
BA145Calidris minuta           
BA146Calidris temminckii           
BA010Calonectris diomedea    900  1000     
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA366Carduelis cannabina               
BA364Carduelis carduelis               
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA136Charadrius dubius           
BA137Charadrius hiaticula           
BA196Chlidonias hybridus           
BA198Chlidonias leucopterus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA084Circus pygargus           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA122Crex crex           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA100Falco eleonorae    750  750     
BA095Falco naumanni           
BA103Falco peregrinus       
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA153Gallinago gallinago           
BA154Gallinago media           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus           
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA014Hydrobates pelagicus           
BA022Ixobrychus minutus           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA181Larus audouinii       
BA177Larus minutus           
BA179Larus ridibundus           
BA291Locustella fluviatilis           
BA290Locustella naevia           
BA270Luscinia luscinia           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra               
BA073Milvus migrans           
M1366Monachus monachus       
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA160Numenius arquata           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA214Otus scops           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii       
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
P1896Phoenix theophrasti           
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA034Platalea leucorodia           
BA032Plegadis falcinellus           
BA120Porzana parva           
BA119Porzana porzana           
BA250Ptyonoprogne rupestris           
BA013Puffinus puffinus           
BA013Puffinus puffinus    10  10     
BA118Rallus aquaticus               
BA249Riparia riparia           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata               
P1459Silene holzmanii           
BA195Sterna albifrons           
BA193Sterna hirundo           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA304Sylvia cantillans           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA161Tringa erythropus           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA163Tringa stagnatilis           
BA162Tringa totanus           
BA283Turdus merula               
M1349Tursiops truncatus           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
  Allium longanum                   
  Allium rubrovittatum                   
  Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
  Anthemis ammanthus ssp. ammanthus                   
  Anthemis ammanthus ssp. paleacea                   
  Anthemis filicaulis                   
  Arenaria aegaea                   
  Asperula crassula                   
  Asperula rigida                   
  Atriplex recurva                   
  Campanula creutzburgii                   
  Campanula pelviformis                   
  Carlina diae                   
  Centaurea aegialophila                   
  Centaurea idaea                   
  Cistanche phelypaea                   
  Coluber gemonensis                   
  Crepis tybakiensis                   
  Crocus tournefortii                   
  Cyclamen creticum                   
  Cymbalaria microcalyx ssp. dodekanesi                   
  Cynara cornigera                   
  Cyrtodactylus kotschyi                   
  Dianthus fruticosus ssp. amorginus                   
  Ebenus cretica                   
  Fibigia lunarioides                   
  Filago aegaea ssp. aristata                   
  Hemidactylus turcicus                   
  Hypericum amblycalyx                   
1251  Lacerta trilineata                   
  Limonium frederici                   
  Lygeum spartum                   
  Nepeta melissifolia                   
  Onosma graeca                   
  Ophrys fusca                     
  Phlomis lanata                   
1311  Pipistrellus savii                   
1238  Podarcis erhardii                   
  Ricotia cretica                   
  Salsola aegaea                   
  Scutellaria sieberi                   
  Serratula cichoracea ssp. cretica                   
  Seseli gummiferum ssp. crithmifolium                   
  Silene fabaria                   
  Stachys spinosa                   
1289  Telescopus fallax                   
  Teucrium alpestre                   
  Teucrium brevifolium                   
  Trigonella rechingeri                   
  Tulipa cretica                   
  Tulipa saxatilis                   
  Valeriana asarifolia                   
  Viola scorpiuroides                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class

% Cover

N0142.91
N020.01
N030.01
N044.54
N050.95
N060.13
N0841.86
N090.25
N158.18
N180.71
N220.01
N230.44

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

The site, the northeastern part of Crete, includes the easternmost area of the island, the peninsula of Sidero, and the nearby islets, Dyonisades and Elasa. Geologically this area of Crete consists of limestones and dolomites of the upper Cretaceous, bedded crystalline limestones of the Permian, phylites and neogene and alluvial deposits. The vegetation is mainly phrygana. There are a lot of valleys with maquis, some of them degrading. The palm forest (Phoenix theophrastii) of Vai, unique in Europe, is situated in a coastal valley, on the easternmost coast of Crete. This part of Crete is one of the driest parts of Greece. Almost all streams dry up during summer; they are surrounded by a typical vegetation of Oleanders, etc. There are 2-3 villages in the area. There are plantations of bananas in greenhouses while the land near the villages is cultivated. At the eastern coast there are a lot of sand dunes, mainly between the palm forest and the sea and east of Palaikastro at Grantes gulf. On the west side of Sidero peninsula there are Posidonia beds and flocs of Tursiops truncatus have been observed. On the tip of Sidero peninsula there is a military base. The nearby islets are uninhabited. The Dyonisades islets group consists of Permian limestone while Elasa islet consists of dolomites and limestones of upper Cretaceous. The vegetation on the islets is phrygana. Near the sea there are halophilous plants. In the larger islet of Dyonisades group as well as on the opposite coast of Crete the coastline is characterized by sea cliffs.

4.2 Quality and importance

The whole area is very important for its flora and fauna, both marine and terrestrial.The palm forest is one of the most important characteristics of the area. It reaches an area of 20 ha. The species Phoenix theophrastii is under protection. The forest has already been characterised as an aesthetic forest (979/85) and it is under the management of the Forestry Department and it is also a Special Protection Area (SPA) and a site protected by the Barcelona Convention.Most of the plants which are listed in 3.3 are endemic. Some are strict endemics (Anthemis filicaulis, Carlina diae), some are endemics of the site (Campanula pelviformis, Campanula spatulata ssp. filicaulis, Asperula crassula), some are endemic of Crete and its satellite islets (Serratula cichoracea, Campanula creutzburgii, Asperula rigida, Muscari speitzenhoferi, Tulipa cretica, Teucrium alpestre, Hypericum amblycallyx, Ebenus cretica) some are endemics of the south Aegean islands and/or Cyclades and/or Dodekanese (Atriplex recurva, Carlina sitiensis, Centaurea raphanina ssp. raphanina, Crepis cretica, Crepis tybakiensis, Teucrium gracile, Limonium sitiacum, Limonium frederici, Cyclamen creticum, Allium rubrovittatum, Muscari dionysicum, Nepeta melissifolia, Stachys mucronata, Filago aegaea sp. aegaea, Dianthus fruticosus ssp. amorginus, Salsola aegaea, Salsola carpathia, Arenaria aegaea (=Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp. aegaea), Asperula tournefortii , Nigella doerfleri, Anthemis ammanthus (with two subspecies in the area) or of Greece (Cymbalaria microcalyx ssp. dodekanesi with a rare endemic subspecies in the area, Ornithogallum creticum, Melica rectiflora, Symphytum creticum).There are some plants that their presence in the area is the only (or one of the few) european presence of the species. The species Cistanche phelypea is a plant of the African deserts but it is rarely found in the site’s area; in Crete it is near the northern limits of its distribution and otherwise it occurs only in the Iberian peninsula in Europe. Allium longanum (rare in Greece and vulnerable in the world according to IUCN, 1993) is found in very few south Aegean islands and islets and also in Libya and Egypt. Also the African species Viola scorpiuroides is found in Crete and in Libya. The species Onosma graeca is generally found in NW Anatolia, out of Greece. Galium canum ssp. ovatum Cretan area East Aegean Islands & Turkey. Filago aegaea ssp. aristata is a plant with distribution in S & E Aegean, Ionian Islands, Kriti and Cyprus. Cynara cornigera is a species with distribution in S. Greece, the Aegean and Cyprus. Silene fabaria is an Aegean region endemic (occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece). Teucrium brevifolium is found in Anatolia, Egypt and Libya out of Greece. Brassica cretica ssp. aegaea is a chasmophyte with distribution in Greece, SW Anatolia, Mt Carmel. Didesmus aegyptius is an east mediterranean element, islet specialist. Euphorbia dimorphocaulon is a mediterranean species with distribution in Crete S Turkey and Cyprus.Most of the plants can be characterised as rare, some species are considered vulnerable, while relatively few species are common in the area and in the country. Parietaria cretica is a species with distribution in Sicily, Greece and the Aegean region. Polygala venulosa is a species with distribution in S Greece, the Aegean, Anatolia and Cyprus.The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Plants characterized as «rare»: Anthemis filicaulis, Asperula tournefortii, Campanula creutzburgii, Carlina sitiensis, Crepis tybakiensis, Dianthus fruticosus ssp. amorginus, Hypericum amblycalyx, Limonium frederici, Muscari dionysicum, Nigella fumariifolia, Salsola carpatha, Viola scorpiuroides.The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants: Centaurea aegialophila (vulnerable), Nigella fumariifolia (rare; found in Greece and in Cyprus).Tulipa saxatilis is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81)The strict endemic species Carlina diae is protected by the Bern convention (revised appendix I, 1992) and by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and is included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants and in the European Red List of Globally Trheatened Plants characterized as vulnerable.The orchids Anacamptis pyramidalis, Ophrys fusca are protected by the CITES Convention (Annex C).Lygeum spartum in the area is important. This species belongs to the desert-like floristic element, occurring only in steppe communities in Kriti in Greece (it occurs at similar habitats in Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy in Europe); it is one of the very rare grasses in Greece (Damanakis & Scholz, 1990). Distribution in Europe: at similar habitats.Note: The IUCN characterizations given concern the plant’s status in Greece unless otherwise stated.Concerning the animals, there are a lot of invertebrate endemic species and some vertebrate endemic subspecies. Regarding the reptiles one can say that their presence is quite important. On Crete the reptiles are found in isolated small populations while on the islets there are endemic subspecies. The species Hemidactylus turcicus is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/1981) and by the Bern Convention (appendix III). The species Cyrtodactylus kotschyi, Coluber gemonensis and Telescopus fallax are also protected by the Bern convention (appendix II) and are considered species of Community interest (Annex IV, Directive 92/43/EEC). Lacerta trilineata and Podarcis erhardii , besides being legally protected by the above law and convention, they are also considered species of Community interest (Annex IV, Directive 92/43/EEC). For Chameleon chameleon (which is not listed in 3.3), cautiousness is needed. There are few old records from Crete which need confirmation. But if this species is present on Crete then it is very rare and needs special attention. It is considered a species of Community interest (Annex IV, Directive 92/43/EEC), included in the National Red Data Book and protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/1981), by the Bern Convention (appendix II) and by the Convention on the Conservation on International Trade in Endangered species of wild fauna and flora (CITES). The mammal Pipistrellus savii is considered species of Community interest (Annex IV, Directive 92/43/EEC) and protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/1981) and by the Bern Convention (appendix II)Most species of the land snails mentioned in 3.3. are endemic of the site or of Crete. The Dyonisades group has been characterised as an Important Bird Area, especially for birds that live at cliffs. The sea fauna and flora is quite interesting since in this area one can find Ruppia cirrhosa which is rare in Crete. On the west side of Sidero peninsula flocks of Tursiops truncatus (species listed on Annex II, Directive 92/43/EEC) have been observed.Apart from the important species of fauna and flora there are also archaeological and fossil findings in the area.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MF02.02.02i
A01o
LA01i
B02.03o
HA04i
HF03.01i
HB02.03i
F02.03i
A04o
LJ01i
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
F02.03i
A01o

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1) Dafis, SP. A., 1985: The palm tree forest of Vai (Sitia - Crete). Arist. Univ. of Thessaloniki, Scient. Ann. For.Natur. Envir. KH(4): 140-152. (4.2, 4.3) 2) Institutre of Geology and Mineralogy of Greece. Geologic map of Sitia. (4.1) 3) Paragamian, K., personal data. (3.1, 4.2) 4) Kypriotakis, Z. personal data. (4.1, 4.2, 3.2, 3.3, 5) Mavrommatis, 1973. Ecology of the “Vai” palm forest of Crete (Phoenix theophrastii GR.). Dasos : 21-24. (4.1, 4.2) 6) Pennas, P., 1977. The climate of Crete. Ph.D. Thesis pp.105, Univ.Thessaloniki. (4.1) 7) SIAKAVARA,K., personal data (4.1, 4.2, 3.1, 3.2.c, ) 8) Tsiourlis, G. personal data (3.1, 4.2) 9) Turland, N.J., L.Chilton, J.R.Rees, 1993. Flora of the cretan area. Annotated checklist and atlas. pp.439. (4.2, 3.3) 10) Vardinoyannis K., 1994. I viogeografia ton chersaion malakion tou notiou aigaiakou toxou. (Biogeography of land snails in the south aegean island arc). Ph.D. pp. Univ. of Athens. (4.1, 4.2, 3.3) 11) Wettstein O. v. 1953. Herpetologia Aegea. Sitz. ber. Oestrr. Akad. Wiss. Wien 162: 651-833. (3.3, 4.2) 12) Wettstein 1968. Zoologische Aufsammlungen auf kreta: Amphibien und Reptilien. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien. 72:405-408. (3.3, 4.2) 13) Helelnic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal (HSSPMS). 1994. Continuation of establishment of a rescue network for orphan, wounded and sick seals and gathering of seal observations from the whole Greece. Function of the seal treatment and rehabilitation center in Alonnisos. Final Report. EU Contract No 4-3010 (92)7829, p 112. (3.2.c) 14) Damanakis M. & H. Scholz. 1990. Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece. Willdenowia 19:413-423. 15) Georghiou K. 1995. Checklist of Endemic, Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Draft. University of Athens. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2) 16) Morgan V & C. Leon. 1992. Datasheets of Flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. Nature and Envrionment. No 63 p. 106. Council of Europe, Publishing and Documentaion Service, Strasbourg. (3.2.g.) 17) Boyec P. & K. Athanasiou. 1991. A new subspecies of Biarum tenuifolium (Araceae) from Crete. Flora Med. 1:5-13. (3.4) 18) Grimmet R.F.A. & T.A. Jones. 1989. The Important Bird Areas in Europe. ICBP Technical Publication No. 9, p. 906. (3.2.a.,b). 19) Hellenic Ornithological Society & National Agricultural Research Foundation. 1994. Survey and evaluation of Biotopes and investigation of the possibility for inclusion in the Community Network of Special Protection Areas according to the Article 4 of Directive 79/409/EC for the conservation of the wild birds. Phase A. Rapid ornithological assessment of 16 biotopes. ENVIREG Project. Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. Athens. p. 138. (3.2. a,b). [CORINE BIOTOPES] (3.2.a.,b). 20) Bergmeier Å. & P. Dimopoulos. 2003. The vegetation of islets in the Aegean and the relation between the occurrence of islet specialists, island size and grazing. Phytocoenologia 33 (2-3):447-474.

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code

Cover [%]

Code

Cover [%]

Code

Cover [%]

GR120.13IN040.13GR955.77

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:


designated at national or regional level:

Type code

Site name

Type

Cover [%]

GR95Plaú Marazaki Dimou Itanou*1.01
IN06Voreianatoliko Akro Kritis-0.00
GR12Foinikodasos Vaú Lasithiou+0.13
IN04Aisthitiko Dasos Vai+0.13
GR95Vaú Dimou Itanou+0.68
GR95Dionysades nisoi Dimou Siteias+4.07
IN06Dionisades Nisoi-0.00

designated at international level:

Type

Site name

Type

Cover [%]

Other Plaú Marazaki Dimou Itanou*1.01
Voreianatoliko Akro Kritis-0.00
Foinikodasos Vaú Lasithiou+0.13
Aisthitiko Dasos Vai+0.13
Vaú Dimou Itanou+0.68
Dionysades nisoi Dimou Siteias+4.07
Dionisades Nisoi-0.00

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:
Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management Plan for Kavo Sidero - Dionysades - Vai. Management of grazing, tree felling.

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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