Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type1.2 Site code

1.3 Site name

1.4 First Compilation date1.5 Update date

1.6 Respondent:

Date site proposed as SCI:1997-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:





2.2 Area [ha]:

2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code

Region Name


2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1120info      0.00   
1170info      0.00   
3170info      0.00   
3290info      0.00   
4090info      0.00   
5420info      0.00   
5430info      0.00   
8140info      0.00   
8310info      0.00   
8330info      0.00   
9290info      0.00   
9540info      0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA293Acrocephalus melanopogon           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA091Aquila chrysaetos       
BA028Ardea cinerea           
P1606Bupleurum kakiskalae    11  50     
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA010Calonectris diomedea           
M1372Capra aegagrus    550  550     
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA365Carduelis spinus           
P1901Cephalanthera cucullata    51  100     
BA080Circaetus gallicus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA207Columba oenas           
BA208Columba palumbus           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
R1293Elaphe situla                 
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA103Falco peregrinus       
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA002Gavia arctica           
BA076Gypaetus barbatus       
BA078Gyps fulvus       
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus           
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
P1433Hypericum aciferum    11  50     
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA073Milvus migrans           
M1310Miniopterus schreibersi                 
M1366Monachus monachus                 
BA280Monticola saxatilis           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
M1321Myotis emarginatus                 
BA077Neophron percnopterus           
P1684Nepeta sphaciotica    501  1000     
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
P1685Origanum dictamnus    1001  10000     
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA214Otus scops           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA266Prunella modularis           
BA250Ptyonoprogne rupestris           
BA346Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax           
BA317Regulus regulus           
M1304Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum                 
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros                 
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA304Sylvia cantillans           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA232Upupa epops           
P1436Zelkova abelicea    251  500     
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
  Allium callimischon ssp. haemostictum                   
  Allium dilatatum                   
  Allium rubrovittatum                   
  Alyssum fragillimum                   
  Alyssum sphacioticum                   
  Amelanchier ovalis ssp. cretica                   
  Anchusa cespitosa                   
  Arenaria fragillima                   
  Arenaria guicciardii                   
  Arum creticum                   
  Arum idaeum                   
  Arum purpureospathum                   
  Asperula rigida                   
  Barlia robertiana                   
  Bolanthus creutzburgii                   
  Brachypodium sylvaticum ssp. creticum                   
1201  Bufo viridis                   
  Centaurea argentea                   
  Centaurea baldaccii                   
  Centaurea idaea                   
  Cephalaria squamiflora ssp. squamiflora                   
1274  Chalcides ocellatus                   
  Clematis elisabethae-carolae                   
  Colchicum cretense                   
  Colchicum macrophyllum                   
  Coluber gemonensis                   
  Cotoneaster nummularia                   
  Crepis auriculifolia                   
  Crepis sibthorpiana                   
  Crepis tybakiensis                   
  Crocidura suaveolens                   
  Crocus sieberi ssp. sieberi                   
  Cyclamen creticum                   
  Cynoglossum sphacioticum                   
  Daphne jasminea                   
  Datisca cannabina                   
  Dianthus juniperinus ssp. heldreichii                   
  Dianthus juniperinus ssp. juniperinus                   
  Dianthus sphacioticus                   
  Draba cretica                   
  Ebenus cretica                   
1327  Eptesicus serotinus                   
  Erysimum candicum ssp. candicum                   
  Erysimum mutabile                   
  Erysimum raulinii                   
  Euphorbia rechingeri                   
  Felis silvestris cretensis                   
  Galium samothracicum                   
  Glis glis argenteus                   
  Gypsophila nana                   
  Hemidactylus turcicus                   
  Hypericum kelleri                   
  Hypericum trichocaulon                   
  Inula candida ssp. candida                   
1251  Lacerta trilineata                   
  Martes foina bunites                   
  Meles meles arcalus                   
  Mustela nivalis galinthias                   
  Myosotis solange                   
  Odontites linkii ssp. cretica                   
  Onobrychis sphaciotica                   
  Orchis prisca                   
  Petromarula pinnata                   
  Phlomis lanata                   
1238  Podarcis erhardii                   
1238  Podarcis erhardii leukaorii                   
  Prunella cretensis                   
  Ranunculus creticus                   
  Ranunculus radinotrichus                   
  Ricotia cretica                   
  Scabiosa albocincta                   
  Scabiosa sphaciotica                   
  Scutellaria hirta                   
  Scutellaria sieberi                   
  Sedum creticum                   
  Sedum praesidis                   
  Senecio fruticulosus                   
  Silene variegata                   
  Silene vulgaris ssp. suffrutescens                   
  Stachys spinosa                   
  Suncus etruscus                   
  Teucrium alpestre                   
  Thlaspi creticum                   
  Thymus leucotrichus                   
  Tulipa cretica                   
  Tulipa saxatilis                   
  Valeriana asarifolia                   
  Verbascum arcturus                   
  Verbascum spinosum                   
  Veronica kavusica                   
  Viola cretica                   
  Viola fragrans                   
  Viola rauliniana                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class

% Cover


Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site has a very variable geomorphological profile. There are 50 summits over 2000 m It is characterized by a number of gorges (approximately 20) of which the gorge of Samaria is the most characteristic. There is also a great number of ravines, caves, dolines, potholes, poljes, and plateaus forming a sequence of different habitats from 0 m to 2453 m.The dolines are of special interest; the wet dolines are characterized by scanty vegetation of annuals common in other places but rare in Crete while the dry dolines are characterized by dense vegetation and, in Lefka Ori, by the occurence of Hypericum kelleri, specialized in this type of habitat and endemic to the Cretan mountains. The largest cypress forest in Crete (and one of the last remaining) as well as extended pine forests are found at the borders of the site. A small percentage of the area is covered by tall kermes oak formations. The coastal part is characterized by calcareous escrapments. The tallest ones (200 to 500 m), termed as plurizonal megacliffs, have several climatic and vegetation belts. The mosaic vegetation is intensified by the existence of karstic ravines that support a luxuriant and frutescent cliff vegetation (karst rockbush). Samaria ravine is the largest coastal ravine of the Balkans with a depth of more than 500 m. The marine part, is characterized by Posidonia beds, reefs and sea caves. Very few local communities, mostly coastal, and a very sparce network of secondary roads at the margins of the site are the only visible signs of human presence at the area. As a general remark we must stress the fact that the available Annex I habitat types are insufficient and/or inadequate for the proper description of the site.

4.2 Quality and importance

The described site is of utmost importance. It includes a great variety of very important habitats that host a great number of species of flora and fauna, a large proportion of which are endemics or even stenoendemics, restricted to the site. Most characteristic and indicative of the site's quality is the gorge of Samaria, that, in addition to being a Special Protection Area (SPA) for birds, it has been declared National Park since 1962, has been designated as a Biosphere reserve, and has also been awarded the European Diploma of the Council of Europe; besides, it is protected by the Barcelona Convention. An essential element of the site's importance, coupling its potential for bioversity, is that it is a vast area with low human impact and it includes many important biotic and non-biotic natural elements, whose true value we are not yet fully aware of. The great morhpological complexity combined with the above give a high aesthetic result. The need of a global management plan is urgent if the site's invaluable elements are to be preserved. A more analytical description and demonstration of the importance of the the fauna and flora, proving the site's value for biodiversity, is given below: 1) Fauna: All the molluscs included in section 3.3., except Helix cincta, Monaca rothi and Vitrea clessini, are endemic to Crete. The invertebrates Duvalius sbordonii, Niphargobates lefkodemonaki, Serradium sbordonii, Lephtyphanthes lindbergi, and Trichoniscus lindbergi are only found in caves and they are endemics to Crete, the first two being endemics to one single cave each. Regarding the mammals, the site shelters some Annex II species and some other important and protected species. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum ssp. creticum, included in section 3.2.c. as Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, is a subspecies endemic to Crete. Capra aegagrus cretica (included in section 3.2.c. as C. aegagrus), is also an endemic subspecies. It must be noted that according to Bate (1905), all Cretan mammals are either endemic species or subspecies, but these data are under question. The species Glis glis, Felis sylvestris, and Eptesius serotinus are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of the Wild Flora and Fauna. Finally, the fauna also includes amphibians and reptiles protected by the Bern Convention. The mammal Crocidura zimmermani and the reptile Podarcis erhardi leukaorii are Cretan endemics.2) Flora: Of the species included in section 3.3 (other important species) many are endemic, some of them endemic to the site or to the Cretan area. Besides the Annex II species, the presence of Ranunculus radinotrichus, should also be noted since is an endangered species to be included in the National Red Data Book (currently under edition). Finally, concerning vegetation, the importance of the kermes oak formations should be noted as the site is one of the three locations in Crete with extended arborescent kermes oak communities and as a biotope sustaining a specialized invertebrate fauna, not yet sufficiently known.NOTES: In section 3.2.c., Capra aegagrus stands for Capra aegagrus cretica.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION D.Plants:The endemic species Alyssum fragillimum, Alyssum sphacioticum, Anchusa cespitosa, Anthemis abrotanifolia, Arenaria fragilimma, Asplenium creticum, Biarum davisii ssp. davisii, Bolanthus creutzburgi, Campanula jaquinii, Centaurea baldacii, Centaurea lancifolia, Centaurea redempta, Cirsium morinifolium, Clematis elisabethae-carolae, Crepis auriculifolia, Crepis sibthorpiana, Corydalis rutifolia ssp. uniflora, Cuscuta atrans, Cynoglossum sphakioticum, Eryngium ternatum, Euphorbia-sultan-hasei, Ferulago thyrsiflora, Helichrysum heldreichi, Hypochoeris tenuiflora, Onobrychis sphaciotica, Ononis verae, Petrorhagia dianthoides, Prunella cretensis, Sanguisorba cretica, Satureja cretica, Scabiosa albocincta, Senecio fruticulosus, Sesleria doerfleri, Silene pinetorum, Teucrium cuneifolium, Thlaspi zaffrani, Viola cretica, are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece. C. lancifolia is a vulnerable species also protected by the Bern Convention and included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC.The endemic species: Viola fragans, Centranthus sieberi, Scilla nana and Asperula idaea are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Colchicum macrophyllum, Tulipa saxatilis, are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Lamyropsis cynaroides (rare) is included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece. Cotoneaster nummularia (vulnerable), Datisca cannabina (vulnerable), Ranunculus creticus (rare), Paracaryum lithospermifolium ssp. cariense (rare) are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece.The following Mediterranean species have been considered important:Allium callimischon ssp. haemostictum occurs in only in Crete and SW Turkey; Arum creticum and Satureja spinosa are species occurring in Crete, the East Aegean and SW Turkey; Festuca polita occurs in Greece and SW Turkey; Brassica cretica ssp. cretica is a chasmophyte with distribution in Peloponnisos and Crete and only in Lebanon out of Greece; Viola rauliniana W & C Crete and in Cyprus; Lithodora hispidula ssp. hispidula is endemic to East Aegean Islands, Crete and W Turkey. Myosotis refracta ssp. paucipilosa is a species scattered in Greece (Lefka Ori, Nafpaktos, Boumistos, Samos) and S Anatolia. Thymus leucotrichus is a species of the mountains of Greece and Anatolia.Amelanchier ovalis ssp. cretica occurs only in Sicily out of Greece; Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a rather rare plant with scattered localities in Greece (distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy). Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum is a balkan endemic. Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania).Animals: The species Mustela nivalis, Erinaceus concolor nesiotes, Crocidura suaveolens, Suncus etruscus, Coluber gemonensis, Cyrtodactylus kotschyi bartoni, Hemidactylus turcicus are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. The species Glis glis is included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. The species Felis sylvestris, Eptesius serotinus, Hyla arborea cretensis, Bufo viridis, Chalcides occelatus, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis erhardii are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. The invertebrate Helix cincta is a relist element of the Cretan fauna with very restricted, vulnerable populations. Its presence is very important both for zoogeographical research and as an element of biodiversity.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1) Catsadorakis G. 1985. The vertebrate fauna of the White Mountains National Park (Samaria) of Crete. Hania Forestry Serv. 1: 1-46 [3.2, 3.3] 2) Martens, J. 1967 : Plecotus austriacus (Fischer) auf Kreta mit Bermerkumgen zu weiteren Arten (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Bonn.zool.Beitr. 18(3-4) : 253-362 [3.2, 3.3] 3) Mavrommatia G. 1976. Dierevnisis tou oikosystimatos Ethnikou Drymou Samarias, Kriti (Investigation of the ecosystem of Samaria National Park, Crete). [3.2, 3.3] 4) Nievergelt B. & Stocker J. 1986. Lefka Ori (White Mountains), western Crete. Report. Field course for ethnologists and wildlife biologists. Ethnol. Wildlife Res. Inst. Zool. Univ. Zurich-Irchel. 1-93.[3.2, 3.3] 5) Ondrias, J.C., 1965. Die Saugetiere Griechenlands. Saugetierk. Mitt. 13 (3): [3.2, 3.3] 6) Pendarakis C.E. 1994. Structure and dynamics of Pinus brutia var. brutia (Ten.) stands naturally established on abandoned fields, at Anopolis plateau, Southern Crete. Thesis. International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Studies. Mediterranan Agronomic Institute of Chania, Crete, Greece. 7) Pohle H. 1953. Uber Fledertiere von Kreta Z. Saugetierk 17(1): 14-20 [3.2, 3.3] 8) Sowing. 1985. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung und Oekologie der Amphibien und Reptilien Kretas. Salamandra, 21(4): 252-262 [3.2, 3.3] 9) Strijboch H. 1984. Waarnemig aan de herpetofauna van Kreta. Lacerta 42(4): 61-80 [3.2, 3.3] 10) Vardinoyannis K., 1994. Biogeografia ton cherseon malakion sto notio nisiotiko aigaiako toxo (Biogeography of land snails in the south Aegean arc). Ph.D. Thesis. Univerity of Athens., p. 327 [3.2, 3.3] 11) Wettstein, O. 1935. Herpetologia aegaea. Sber. Osterr. Akad. Wiss. 162:651-833. [3.2, 3.3] 12) Wettstein O., 1953. Die Insectivora von Kreta. Z.Saeugetierk. 17: 413. [3.2, 3.3] 13) Zaffran J. 1990. Contributions a la flore et la vegetation de la Grete. Universite de Provence, p. 650. [3.2, 3.3] 14) Zimmermann K., 1953. Die Wildsauger von Kreta. Z.Saeugetierk 17(1): 1-72. [3.2, 3.3] 15) Lovric A.Z. & M. Rac.1991. A comparison of the coastal vegetation of Greece, Yogoslavia, Bulgaria and Turkey. Bot. Chron. 10:315-324 16) Egli B.R. 1991. The special flora, ecological and edaphic conditions of dolines in the mountains of Crete. Bot. Chron. 10:325-335. 17) Strid A. & Kit Tan. 1991. Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol. 2. Edinburgh University Press. p. 974. (3.3) 18) Strid A. 1986. Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol. 1. Edinburgh University Press. p. 822. (3.3) 19) Georghiou K. 1995. Checklist of Endemic, Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Draft. University of Athens. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2) 20) Morgan V & C. Leon. 1992. Datasheets of Flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. Nature and Envrionment. No 63 p. 106. Council of Europe, Publishing and Documentaion Service, Strasbourg. (3.2.g.) 21) Stearn W. 1986. The Greek species of Symphytum (Boraginaceae). Ann.Mus. Goul. 7:175-220. (3.4) 22) Catsadorakis G. 1991. On the avifauna of Samaria gorgre (Crete, Greece). Kartierung mediterr. Brutvogel 6: 3-12. (3.2. a, b). 23) Economidou E. 1988. Inventory and study of the wetlands and other important bird biotopes in Crete. Final report, Vol. I. University of Patras. Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. Partas. (3.2. a, b). 24) Grimmet R.F.A. & T.A. Jones. 1989. The Important Bird Areas in Europe. ICBP Technical Publication No. 9, p. 906. (3.2. a). 25) [CORINE BIOTOPES] (3.2. a, b). 26) Developmental Union East Selinountas, Speceial Environmental Study of SW Lefka Ori and study for the protection of Capra aegagrus (not yet approved).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


Cover [%]


5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

designated at national or regional level:

Type code

Site name


Cover [%]

IN06Lefka Ori-0.00
GR95Lefka Ori Anatolikou Selinou kai Sfakion*13.11
GR24Prostateftiko dasos oreinou ogkou Lefkon Oreon nomou Chanion*71.90

designated at international level:


Site name


Cover [%]

Other Samaria+8.90
Lefka Ori-0.00
Lefka Ori Anatolikou Selinou kai Sfakion*13.11
Prostateftiko dasos oreinou ogkou Lefkon Oreon nomou Chanion*71.90


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:
No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management plan for the National Forest Park - 1996. Management plan for the microreserve of Cephalanthera cucullata, Hypericum aciferum, Nepeta sphaciotica. Management of tree felling.



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