Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type1.2 Site code
AGR4340014

1.3 Site name

ETHNIKOS DRYMOS SAMARIAS - FARANGI TRYPITIS - PSILAFI - KOUSTOGERAKO
1.4 First Compilation date1.5 Update date
1995-052009-05

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:
Address:               
Email:

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:1987-10
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/1-9-2012 (OJ 1495 B)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude

23.915833

Latitude

35.270278

2.2 Area [ha]:

2.3 Marine area [%]

13979.76000.0000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code

Region Name

GR43Kriti

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA091Aquila chrysaetos       
BA028Ardea cinerea           
P1606Bupleurum kakiskalae    11  50     
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA010Calonectris diomedea           
M1372Capra aegagrus    150  200     
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA365Carduelis spinus           
P1901Cephalanthera cucullata           
BA080Circaetus gallicus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA207Columba oenas           
BA208Columba palumbus           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
R1293Elaphe situla                 
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA103Falco peregrinus                 
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA076Gypaetus barbatus       
BA076Gypaetus barbatus       
BA078Gyps fulvus    45  45     
BA078Gyps fulvus    10  15     
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus                 
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA233Jynx torqilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA246Lullula arborea                 
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA073Milvus migrans           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA077Neophron percnopterus           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA214Otus scops           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA266Prunella modularis           
BA250Ptyonoprogne rupestris           
BA013Puffinus puffinus (yelkouan)           
BA346Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax           
BA317Regulus regulus           
M1304Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum           
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros           
BA275Saxicola ruberta           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA304Sylvia cantillans           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA232Upupa epops           
P1436Zelkova abelicea           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1201  Bufo viridis                   
  Centaurea argentea                   
  Centaurea baldaccii                   
  Centaurea idaea                   
1274  Chalcides ocellatus                   
  Coluber gemonensis                   
  Crocus sieberi ssp. sieberi                   
  Draba cretica                   
1327  Eptesicus serotinus                   
  Glis glis argenteus                   
  Hemidactylus turcicus                   
  Hypericum trichocaulon                   
  Inula candida ssp. candida                   
  Martes foina bunites                   
  Meles meles arcalus                   
  Mustela nivalis galinthias                   
  Phlomis lanata                   
  Podarcis erhardii leukaorii                   
  Ricotia cretica                   
  Verbascum arcturus                   
  Viola fragrans                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class

% Cover

Total Habitat Cover

0

Other Site Characteristics

Geology: The main geological formations composing the geological substrate of the National Park of Samaria Gorge are three: platy crystalline limestones, compact limestones and dolomites, slope debris and fansMain geomorphological and landscape features: The core of the site consists of the approximately 18km long Samaria gorge, directed from the North to the South. The gorge has a unique geomorphology which is characterized by an extremely narrow path, not wider than 3 - 4 m, and by nearly vertical inclines, 300 - 400 m high. The karstic Samaria ravine is of the largest coastal ravines in the Balcans.Further more the site is characterized by:1. A number of secondary ravines beginning from the peaks of Volakias and Avlimonokou and flowing in to the main gorge (in its torrent)2. An impressive altitudinal variation; within 6.5 km the altitude increases from nearly zero to more than 2,100 m a.s.l. and there are 4 peaks exceeding 2,000 m a.s.l.3. Several geological faults which have resulted in characteristic crags reaching up to 300 - 400 m high.4. Characteristic geomorphological elements of the karstic landscape of Crete such as the limestone dolines, caves (most of them being unexplored), formations of slope debris and fans, and several springs.5. Areas with abandoned terraces, a significant human made element of the landscape.The Pinus brutia stands are generally found in the lower elevation zone (0 - 600 m a.s.l. approximately); The formations of Pistacio - Ceratonion do not exceed 200 m a.s.l.; the mixed P. brutia - Cupressus sempervirens stands dominate the altitude zone from 500 - 1,000 m a.s.l. approx. and the pure Cupressus sempervirens stands usually exist between 900 - 1,800 m a.s.l. Above this altitude, important formations of mixed or pure, stands or clusters of C. sempervirens, Quercus coccifera, Acer sempervirens and Zelcova abeticea are quite common, not exceeding 1,600 m a.s.l. At higher altitudes there are formation characterized by Astragalus creticus and Astragalus angustifolius. NOTES 1) The pure Acer sempervirens formations cover a small part of the site. This habitat type is not included in Annex I and corresponds to CORINE code 32.1A.2) The largest area of the site is covered by a mixed forest of pine and cypress.

4.2 Quality and importance

This is an important site for breeding and passage raptors, and for species characteristic of scrub and montane habitats. Species of concern include: Gypaetus barbatus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco peregrinus and Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. Samaria gorge is the oldest National Park in Greece. The complexity and the beauty of the site are unique; proof of this fact are the thousands of visitors who come to cross it (circa 150,000 visitors annualy).The National Park is relatively well managed. Undisturbed for a long period, it contains very well balanced and highly diverse plant and animal communities. The National Park is practically the only area where grazing, which is one of the major causes of negative impacts on habitats elsewhere, is forbidden. Field research is necessary in order to document the indications we have about Samaria's gorge importance.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The endemic species Eryngium ternatum, Helichrysum heldreichii, Sanguisorba cretica and Teucrium cuneifoliumare protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and included in the IUCN list in the category of threatened plants and in the European Red Book of Globally threatened plants characterized as "rare". Animals: Mustela nivalis is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and by the Bern Convention.. Glis glis argenteus and Meles meles arcalus are included in the National Red Data Book and are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and by the Bern Convention. Martes foina is protected by the Bern Convention.All the reptiles and the amphibian Bufo viridis are protected by the Bern Convention. Bufo viridis, Chalcides occelatus, Lacerta thrineata polylepidota and Podarkis erhardii leukaorii are, also, included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. Hemidactylus turcicus is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
ME01.02o
MG05o
HL09o
MF03.01o
MI03.02o
LF03.02.03i
MF04.01i
MF04.01o
HG01.04i
HI03.01i
HA04o
ME06i
HF03.02.03o
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1) Catsadorakis G. 1985. The vertebrate fauna of the White Mountains National Park (Samaria) of Crete. Hania Forestry Serv. 1: 1-46 [3.2, 3.3] 2) Martens, J. 1967 : Plecotus austriacus (Fischer) auf Kreta mit Bermerkumgen zu weiteren Arten (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Bonn.zool.Beitr. 18(3-4) : 253-362 [3.2, 3.3] 3) Mavrommatia G. 1976. Dierevnisis tou oikosystimatos Ethnikou Drymou Samarias, Kriti (Investigation of the ecosystem of Samaria National Park, Crete). [3.2, 3.3] 4) Nievergelt B. & Stocker J. 1986. Lefka Ori (White Mountains), western Crete. Report. Field course for ethnologists and wildlife biologists. Ethnol. Wildlife Res. Inst. Zool. Univ. Zurich-Irchel. 1-93.[3.2, 3.3] 5) Ondrias, J.C., 1965. Die Saugetiere Griechenlands. Saugetierk. Mitt. 13 (3): [3.2, 3.3] 6) Pendarakis C.E. 1994. Structure and dynamics of Pinus brutia var. brutia (Ten.) stands naturally established on abandoned fields, at Anopolis plateau, Southern Crete. Thesis. International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Studies. Mediterranan Agronomic Institute of Chania, Crete, Greece. 7) Pohle H. 1953. Uber Fledertiere von Kreta Z. Saugetierk 17(1): 14-20 [3.2, 3.3] 8) Sowing. 1985. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung und Oekologie der Amphibien und Reptilien Kretas. Salamandra, 21(4): 252-262 [3.2, 3.3] 9) Strijboch H. 1984. Waarnemig aan de herpetofauna van Kreta. Lacerta 42(4): 61-80 [3.2, 3.3] 10) Vardinoyannis K., 1994. Biogeografia ton cherseon malakion sto notio nisiotiko aigaiako toxo (Biogeography of land snails in the south Aegean arc). Ph.D. Thesis. Univerity of Athens., p. 327 [3.2, 3.3] 11) Wettstein, O. 1935. Herpetologia aegaea. Sber. Osterr. Akad. Wiss. 162:651-833. [3.2, 3.3] 12) Wettstein O., 1953. Die Insectivora von Kreta. Z.Saeugetierk. 17: 413. [3.2, 3.3] 13) Zaffran J. 1990. Contributions a la flore et la vegetation de la Grete. Universite de Provence, p. 650. [3.2, 3.3] 14) Zimmermann K., 1953. Die Wildsauger von Kreta. Z.Saeugetierk 17(1): 1-72. [3.2, 3.3] 15) Dafis S., 1989. The rehabilitation of the degradated forest ecosystems. IUFRO proceedings: Rehabilitation of the degradated forest ecosystems. Chania, Crete, Greece 16) Edenberger J. and Mayer H., 1989. Zypressen - steil - hangwalder in Nationalpak Samaria-Kreta/Griecheland.IUFRO proceedings: Rehabilitation of the degradated forest ecosystems. Chania, Crete, Greece 17) Egli B.R., 1991. The special flora, ecological and edaphic conditions of dolines in the mountains of Crete. Bot. Chron. 10: pp. 325-335 18) Fournaki C., Personal communication (1995) 19) Heath, M. F. and Evans, M. I., eds. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. 2: Southern Europe. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 8, p. 791. 20) Lymberakis P., Personal communication (1995) 21) M.A.I.C.H., Department of aromatic and medical plants, 1994. Catalogue of Cretan endemic plants. Responsible scientists : Fournaraki C. and Kazakis G. 22) Papanastasis V., 1995. Apotelesmata tou erevnitikou programmatos gia ta apeiloumena topia tis Kritis. Results from a research program concerning the threatened landscape of foresters. Hellenic Forestry society, Thessaloniki. 23) Pedarakis K., 1994. Structure and dynamics of Pinus brutia stands, naturally established on abandoned fields, Anopolis plateau, Crete. M.sc. thesis M.A.I.C.H. 24) Georghiou K. 1995. Checklist of Endemic, Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Draft. University of Athens. (3.3, 3.4, 4.2) 25) Morgan V & C. Leon. 1992. Datasheets of Flora species for revision of Appendix I of the Bern Convention. Volume IV. endemic taxa of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey Nature and environment. Nature and Envrionment. No 63 p. 106. Council of Europe, Publishing and Documentaion Service, Strasbourg. (3.2.g.) 26) Catsadorakis G. 1991. On the avifauna of Samaria gorgre (Crete, Greece). Kartierung mediterr. Brutvogel 6: 3-12. (3.2. a, b). 27) Economidou E. 1988. Inventory and study of the wetlands and other important bird biotopes in Crete. Final report, Vol. I. University of Patras. Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. Partas. (3.2. a, b). 28) Grimmet R.F.A. & T.A. Jones. 1989. The Important Bird Areas in Europe. ICBP Technical Publication No. 9, p. 906. (3.2. a). 29) [CORINE BIOTOPES] (3.2. a, b).

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code

Cover [%]

Code

Cover [%]

Code

Cover [%]

IN0233.74IN0133.74GR2487.16
IN0433.74GR9550.03IN0333.74
GR0533.74

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:


designated at national or regional level:

Type code

Site name

Type

Cover [%]

IN04Samaria*33.73
IN06Lefka Ori-0.00
IN01Samaria*33.73
GR24Prostateftiko dasos oreinou ogkou Lefkon Oreon nomou Chanion*87.16
IN02Samaria*33.73
GR05Samaria*33.73
IN03Samaria*33.73
GR95Lefka Ori Anatolikou Selinou kai Sfakion*50.02

designated at international level:

Type

Site name

Type

Cover [%]

Other Samaria*33.73
Lefka Ori-0.00
Samaria*33.73
Prostateftiko dasos oreinou ogkou Lefkon Oreon nomou Chanion*87.16
Samaria*33.73
Samaria*33.73
Samaria*33.73
Lefka Ori Anatolikou Selinou kai Sfakion*50.02

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:1. MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND FOOD, GENERAL DIRECTORATE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION OF FORESTS AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 2. FOREST DIRECTORATE OF CHANIA 3. MANAGEMENT BODY OF “ETHNIKOS DRYMOS SAMARIAS”
Address:
Email:

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:
Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management plan for the National Forest Park - 1996.

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY