Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

L-Inhawi ta' Pembroke

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Environment and Resources Authority
Address:  Biodiversity Unit    
Date site proposed as SCI:2004-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-03
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1240  info      10.4006  0.00 
1410  info      0.2322  0.00 
3170  info      0.3096  0.00 
5410  info      7.18853  0.00 
5420  info      0.125775  0.00 
6220  info      55.6  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
P4092Elatine gussonei       
P4106Orobanche densiflora       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Allium lojaconoi               
Allium melitense               
Aloe vera               
Anthemis urvilleana               
Anthyllis hermanniae               
Carlina involucrata               
Catananche lutea               
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu               
Chamaeleo chamaeleon               
Chiliadenus bocconei               
Coluber viridiflavus carbonarius               
Damasonium bourgaei               
Euphorbia exigua var. pycnophylla               
Gynandriris sisyrinchium               
Hyparrhenia hirta               
Juncus acutus               
Limonium serotinum               
Limonium virgatum               
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum               
Plantago bellardi               
Podarcis filfolensis maltensis               
Sarcopoterium spinosum               
Scilla sicula               
Spiranthes spiralis               
Tarentola mauritanica               
Thesium humile               
Thymus capitatus               
Urginea pancration               
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The 10% 'Other land' refers to the community based on Juncus acutus, the watercourse colonised by Arundo donax, and the buildings, rural structures and transport network margins within Pembroke.

4.2 Quality and importance

Pembroke supports six habitat types under Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive of which two are priority habitats - EU habitat types 6220 and 3170 - the former habitat type being found throughout the Pembroke Area and is characterised by an assemblage of grasses (namely Brachypodium retusum), composites, leguminous plants and bulbous plants.The mosaic of shallow karstic terrain and deep karren formations at Pembroke has created a blend of garrigue and rocky steppe. The garrigue in Pembroke is co-dominated by Anthyllis hermanniae and Thymus capitatus. The latter is an important floristic element of the Maltese Islands, being often a dominant shrub of Maltese garrigues, such as those found at Pembroke. Rocky steppe is dominated by Hyparrhenia hirta and the Seaside Squill (Urginea pancration - listed in the National Red Data book, due to its restricted distribution in the Mediterranean being confined to Malta, Sicily, Corsica and Mallorca). A watercourse is present at Pembroke in the north-easterly direction. Yet, the vegetation found in this area is not characteristic of watercourses. The upper part supports patches of typical garrigue communities while further downstream the vegetation of the gully bed becomes more herbaceous. Pembroke supports a number of endemic species such as the low-lying species Maltese Dwarf Garlic (Allium lojaconoi) which is not uncommon on rocky ground especially not far from the coast. It is present at Pembroke as one of the largest and best populations. Also important is the Maltese Fleabane Chiliadenus bocconei, which is abundant in localised patches. It is the commonest of the Maltese endemics and is quite frequent in maritime garrigues. The littoral fringe of the maritime garrigue is characterised by Inula crithmoides, Crithmum maritimum, Crucianella rupestris, and small and very restricted populations of three Limonium spp., two of which are endemic (which constitute the habitat type 1240).Phrygana (habitat 5410) occurs as a mosaic with either labiate garrigue dominated by Thymus capitatus and Teucrium fruticans and/or with andropogonid grass steppes dominated by Hyparrhenia hirta.Habitat 1410 is very limited in distribution and is confined to only one area in Pembroke. It is dominated by small bushes of Juncus acutus.A very small endangered population of Sarcopoterium spinosum is present at Pembroke (which constitutes habitat 5420) as two very small sub-populations. It is characteristic of the Eastern Mediterranean Phrygana and may represent a relict community (strictly protected through national legislation, and listed in the national Red Data Book as an endangered species with a restricted distribution in the Mediterranean and the Maltese Islands), which is unknown from any other locality in Malta. There is evidence that natural regeneration is taking place although this is quite a slow process. Locally it co-occurs with species characteristic of garrigue communities - such as Thymus capitatus and Teucrium fruticans; Anthyllis hermanniae dominated phrygana; and ermes communities dominated by species such as Asphodelus aestivus and Urginea pancration.Areas with shrubs such as the high garrigue appear to provide a habitat for the Mediterranean Chamaeleo chamaeleon, which is protected through national legislation. At least some of the rainwater rockpools that form on the karstland at Pembroke are expected to be important for fauna that are linked to such habitats (for example: fairy shrimps, clam shrimps); further studies are necessary to assess this. The Maltese Waterwort (Elatine gussonei), an Annex II species of the Habitats Directive, is known from temporary rainwater rockpools at Pembroke. This Pelago-Maltese endemic, being confined to the Maltese Islands and Lampedusa, is listed in the National Red Data Book as rare with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean. It is also strictly protected through national legislation. The Mediterranean Star-Fruit, Damasonium bourgaei, has also been reported in the area. This species is locally very rare and is listed in the Red Data Book as vulnerable with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean. In rock pools vegetated by aquatic species, those commonly encountered with are Ranunculus saniculaefolium and Chara spp. Mentha pulegium and Sedum caeruleum are also present in the majority of cases. Zannichellia melitensis has also been recorded. Note on Section: Ecological Information - Habitats Only vegetated rock pools (3170) as observed during the time of surveying (Jan08) have been mapped, with the delineations reflecting the location of clumps of rock pools. The relative surface given for this habitat type is based on expert advice.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Environment and Resources Authority

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation



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