Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

C

1.2 Site code

MT0000017

1.3 Site name

Kemmuna u l-Gzejjer ta' Madwarha

1.4 First Compilation date

2004-04

1.5 Update date

2012-09

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:
Address:               
Email:natura2000@mepa.org.mt

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2004-04
National legal reference of SPA designation No data
Date site proposed as SCI:2004-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-03
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:14.337200
Latitude:36.013100

2.2 Area [ha]

294.6600

2.3 Marine area [%]

0.0000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
MT00Malta

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1240  info      26.4  0.00 
1420  info      0.53  0.00 
2210  info      0.12  0.00 
3170  info      1.33  0.00 
5330  info      94.06  0.00 
5410  info      65.77  0.00 
6220  info      2.3  0.00 
8210  info      6.19  0.00 
92D0  info      0.32  0.00 
9320  info      2.95  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
P4102Anacamptis urvilleana       
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla       
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla       
BA010Calonectris diomedea    15  20     
BA081Circus aeruginosus       
BA103Falco peregrinus       
BA096Falco tinnunculus       
BA096Falco tinnunculus       
BA097Falco vespertinus       
P4114Linaria pseudolaxiflora       
BA073Milvus migrans       
BA281Monticola solitarius         
P4105Ophrys melitensis       
BA464Puffinus yelkouan    50  80     
BA351Sturnus vulgaris       
BA351Sturnus vulgaris       
BA303Sylvia conspicillata       
BA303Sylvia conspicillata       
BA305Sylvia melanocephala       
BA305Sylvia melanocephala       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Acinopus picipes               
Aethus pilosus               
Allium lojaconoi               
Allium melitense               
Althaea hirsuta               
Anthemis urvilleana               
Ariadna insidiatrix               
Carlina involucrata               
Ceratonia siliqua               
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu               
Chamaeleo chamaeleon               
Chiliadenus bocconei               
Convolvulus oleifolius               
Crucianella rupestris               
Darniella melitensis               
Daucus lopadusanus               
Daucus rupestris               
Desmazeria pignatti               
Euphorbia exigua var. pycnophylla               
Euphorbia melitensis               
Filago cossyrensis               
Gynandriris sisyrinchium               
Hedychridium dismorphum               
Hedysarum spinosissimum               
Hymenolobus revelieri subsp. sommieri               
Hypericum aegypticum               
Laurus nobilis               
Limonium melitense               
Limonium virgatum               
Limonium zeraphae               
Linum bienne               
Lotus halophilus               
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum               
Olea europaea               
Orobanche cernua               
Pancratium maritimum               
Periploca angustifolia               
Phagnalon graecum subsp. ginzbergeri               
Pipistrellus kuhlii               
Pipistrellus pygmaeus               
Pistacia lentiscus               
Plagiognathus spp.               
Plantago crypsoides               
Plecotus austriacus               
Podarcis filfolensis maltensis               
Polycarpon diphyllum               
Polygonum maritimum               
Putoria calabrica               
Romulea melitensis               
Rosmarinus officinalis               
Satureja microphylla               
Scilla sicula               
Sedum caeruleum               
Sedum litoreum               
Senecio leucanthemifolius               
Senecio pygmaeus               
Smicromyrme viduata               
Stenosis schembrii               
Strongylognathus insularis               
Tamarix africana               
Tarentola mauritanica               
Tetraclinis articulata               
Thymus capitatus               
Trifolium repens               
Trochoidea spratti               
Tuponia hippophaes               
Urginea pancration               
Valantia hispida                 
Vitex agnus-castus               
Zannichellia melitensis               
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0912.00
N2319.00
N0511.00
N0854.00
N153.00
N181.00

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

The 19% 'Other land' indicates the constructions, disturbed land (6.18%), cane beds, lentisk matorral, caves, the saltmarsh at Il-Qala ta' Santa Marija (0.185%) and the sand beaches and sand dune on Kemmuna (0.1839%). The karstland of Kemmuna supports scleropyllous scrub. A number of Sandarac Gum Trees (Tetraclinis articulata) have been planted on Kemmuna.

4.2 Quality and importance

Kemmuna u l-Gzejjer ta' Madwarha (Comino and its islets)Kemmuna is a small island lying mid-way between Malta and Gozo surrounded by a number of small islets known as Kemmunett, Il-Hagriet ta' Bejn il-Kmiemen and l-Iskoll ta' Taht il-Mazz.The cliff sides in the southern area of Kemmuna are characterised by scarps and boulders. The cliffs, especially areas that are shady, support the Cliff Groundsel (Senecio leucanthemifolius - a very rare species having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands as well as the Mediterranean, protected under national legislation. Cliffs are colonised by typical rupestral vegetation. The coastline between the northern and western areas of Kemmuna is indented with coves and inlets. The sea caves of Kemmuna apparently support small colonies of bats. The national distribution range for Kuhl's Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhli - national RDB Status: rare), the Pipistrell (Pipistrellus pygmaeus), and the Grey Long Eared Bat (Plecotus austriacus - national RDB Status: Vulnerable), covers also Kemmuna apart from Gozo and Malta. Bats are protected through national legislation, and are also afforded protection internationally through the Bern Convention, the Bonn Convention and the EC Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC.The rocky coast of the islands supports a number of national RDB species such as the Maltese Sea-chamomile (Anthemis urvilleana - a low-growing endemic), the Sea Buck's Horn Plantain (Plantago crypsoides - this entity is essentially North African). Other species include the Seaside Sea Lavender (Limonium virgatum essentially a marsh species - listed in the national RDB as rare with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands), the Maltese Sea Lavender (Limonium melitensis), Zerafa's Sea Lavender (Limonium zeraphae - a rare endemic species confined to low-lying coastal rocks) and the Rock Crosswort (Crucianella rupestris - listed in the national RDB due to its restricted distribution in the Mediterranean; it is confined to rupestral habitats and low-lying coastal rocks). Also present is the Sea Stonecrop (Sedum litoreum) which is listed in the national RDB as rare having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands. It is frequent in rocky parts along the coast. Phrygana and pre-desert scrub are dominated by Anthyllis hermanniae and Euphorbia melitensis, as well as labiate garrigue species such as Teucrium friticans. The garrigue supports a number of endemic species, which include the Maltese Fleabane (Chiliadenus bocconei), the Maltese Dwarf Garlic (Allium lojaconoi) and the Maltese Pyramidal Orchid (Anacamptis urvilleana - an Annex II species in the Habitats Directive, also listed in the national RDB since it is a rare species of orchid with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands; protected through national legislation). Other species that inhabit this habitat type include: - Periploca angustifolia (strictly protected plant species under national legislation), - the Olive Leaved Bindweed (Convolvulus oleifolius - a species of phytogeographical interest having a restricted distribution in the Mediterranean), - the Blue Stonecrop (Sedum caeruleum - listed in the national RDB because of its restricted Mediterranean distribution and phytogeographical interest), - the Maltese Dwarf Spurge (Euphorbia exigua var. pycnophylla - may represent a Pelago-Maltese endemic, it is quite frequent on exposed rocky ground close to the sea), - the Spiny Sulla (Hedysarum spinosissimum - listed in the national RDB as a vulnerable species; in the Maltese Islands it only occurs on Kemmuna where it grows on rocky ground close to the sea), - the Maltese Savory (Satureja microphylla - listed in the national RDB because of its restricted distribution across the Mediterranean, it being restricted to Malta, Sicily and the region of Puglia in Italy), - the Mediterranean Thyme (Thymus capitatus - listed in the national RDB because it is one of the most important floristic elements of the Maltese Islands, it being often the dominant shrub of the Maltese garrigues, it is legally protected by Government Notice 85 of 1932 due to its importance as a source of honey), - the endemic Maltese Leek (Allium melitense), - the endemic Maltese Spurge (Euphorbia melitensis), and - the Sicilian Squill (Scilla sicula - listed in the national RDB as being a rare species with a restricted distribution in both the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean, protected under national legislation).The few rock pools in the karstland support the Maltese Horned Pondweed (Zannichellia melitensis). This is a recently described endemic. It is listed in the national RDB because it is rare with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands, since it is normally confined to pools on rocky ground. It is legally protected through national legislation. Branchipus sp. is another characteristic species of such rock pools. This taxon is included in the national RDB, it having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands, and is known to be rare. The rock pools have not all been mapped since there are only a few rockpools in the site despite the presence of limestone, and they are interspersed. An area has been marked as habitat type 3170 at the area of Tal-Bieqa, which indicates (approximately) an area where a number of rock pools are found. The garrigue and steppe of Kemmuna and Kemmunett are also typified by Brachypodium retusum, which typifies some expanses of the area.Maquis is dominated by Olea europaea and Ceratonia siliqua both protected under national legislation, while elements of a low maquis comprise Pistacia lentiscus (strictly protected under national legislation), Teucrium flavum and Lonicera implexa. Many rare and threatened species are also known from the islet of Kemmunett, including the Maltese Pyramidal Orchid (Anacamptis urvilleana - Annex II of the Habitats Directive) and the national RDB-listed Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.KEMMUNAIl-Qala ta' Santa Marija & Wied L-AhmarThere is a small sand dune system at Santa Marija where among other typical dune vegetation is the critically endangered Sand Restharrow (Lotus halophilus), recently rediscovered and confined to this area only. Backing the dune is a native Nerio-Tamaricetea stand with Vitex agnus-castus and Tamarix africana. Dune animals of interest from this area include the sphecid wasp Philanthus triangulum, the mutillid wasp Smicromyrme viduata and the carabid beetle Acinopus picipes, which is listed in the National RDB. Afforestation of a great part of the dune with Tamarix africana and T. gallica has led to its degradation and the extinction of some dune species, such as the Sea Holly, Eryngium maritimum.Still persisting in the area are the Sea Daffodil (Pancratium maritimum - listed in the national RDB as a vulnerable species having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands), which on Kemmuna is confined to Il-Qala ta' Santa Marija.The Nerio-Tamaricetea community lies at the mouth of Wied l-Ahmar. The native stands of tamarisk (Tamarix africana) are listed in the national RDB since these native trees have a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and are strictly protected under national legislation. Species inhabiting these tamarisk stands include Tuponia hippophaes, the rare chrysidid wasp (Hedychridium dismorphum - listed in the national RDB as very rare having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands being confined to Il-Qala ta' Santa Marija apart from St.Thomas (San Tumas) bay in Malta) and Plagiognathus sp. The Chaste Tree, Vitex agnus-castus, which is listed in the national RDB as rare with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and is strictly protected under national legislation, is also found. This saline marshland grades into a freshwater wetland inland. The common reed Phragmites australis is present. The rocky ground adjoining the area includes the Stinking Madder (Putoria calabrica - listed in the national RDB as vulnerable and having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean, protected under national legislation and the Blue Flax (Linum bienne - listed in the national RDB as a very rare species having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands; it is restricted to Selmun in Malta apart from Il-Qala ta' Santa Marija on Kemmuna). The Sicilian Iris, Iris sicula, a Siculo-Maltese endemic (of uncertain taxonomic status) listed in the national RDB as vulnerable, had been planted on abandoned agricultural fields at Wied l-Ahmar by BirdLife Malta.The bay at Santa Marija is one site for the endemic marine gastropod Gibbula nivosa, an Annex II species in the Habitats Directive. This is a marine species and is therefore not covered by this terrestrial Natura 2000 site.KEMMUNAThe Ghemieri PeninsulaThe Ghemieri Peninsula, which lies east of Santa Marija, hosts the cruciferous herb Hymenolobus revellieri subsp. sommieri, a sub-endemic protected species (Listed in the national RDB as endangered, with a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean, protected under national legislation), and the Hybleo-Maltese endemic the Pygmy Groundsel (Senecio pygmaeus - listed as a very rare species in the national RDB having a restricted distribution both in the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean, it is protected under national legislation). The Ghemieri Peninsula also supports Pignatti's Fern grass (Desmazeria pignattii - listed in the national RDB with a restricted distribution in the Mediterranean) and the Hispid Marsh-mallow (Althaea hirsuta - listed as a very rare species in the national RDB having a restricted distribution in the Maltese Islands). This peninsula also supports a population of the endemic land snail Trochoidea spratti f. perplanata.Other areas on KEMMUNAThe redoubt area at the southeast of Comino harbours fine specimens of the Wolfbane Periploca angustifolia (listed in the national RDB because it has a restricted distribution in the Mediterranean). The Comino Tower Area supports a population of the Pelago-Maltese endemic Linaria pseudolaxiflora (restricted to Malta, Lampedusa and Linosa; listed in the national RDB as rare and also listed as an Annex II species in the Habitats Directive and protected under national legislation) and the rare ant Leptothorax recedens.TAHT IL-MAZZThe rock-cut valley at Taht il-Mazz, directly north of Comino Tower supports populations of the Pelago-Maltese endemic Daucus rupestris, which is listed in the national RDB as a sub-endemic confined to the Maltese Islands, and the Islands of Lampedusa and Lampione (Pelagian Islands) and Panarea (Aeolian Isles). The underlying cliffs harbour populations of Darniella melitensis (a strictly protected species under national legislation). Notes on Fauna present on Kemmuna & KemmunettKemmunett supports a small colony of the Mediterranean race of the Levantine Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan (listed in the national RDB as vulnerable with a restricted distribution in the Mediterranean). It is a crepuscular/nocturnal colonially breeding species that nests in crevices in suitable sea cliffs. Migrant species include the Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Milvus migrans and Falco vespertinus. The vulnerable Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a summer breeding visitor; it breeds along inaccessible cliffs. The Spectacled Warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) is also present on Kemmuna. This warbler is listed in the national RDB as endangered. Another national RDB-listed bird species is the Short-toed Lark which is vulnerable due to loss of habitat and human disturbance. This lark is a summer visitor and prefers open bare countryside. The Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitarius) is a breeding resident, whereby it is confined to coastal cliffs such as those found on Kemmuna. The Blue Rock Thrush is listed in the national RDB as vulnerable due to human interference.Kemmuna and Kemmunett harbour a number of species of reptiles that fall under Annex II of the Bern Convention. The Maltese Wall Lizard (Podarcis filfolensis maltensis), protected under national legislation, is also found on Kemmuna. The population of Podarcis filfolensis on Kemmunett has morphological differences from the lizard found on Kemmuna and is sometimes regarded as an unnamed subspecies. Kemmuna is also inhabited by the endemic land snail Trochoidea spratti and the endemic beetle Stenosis schembrii. Kemmuna is the type locality for this beetle and of the endemic ant Strongylognathus insularis. Note on Section: Ecological Information - Habitats Within this site an area was mapped where West Mediterranean clifftop phryganas (Code 5410) co-occurs with Mediterranean Temporary Ponds (3170), as well as extensive areas where 5410 co-occurs with Thermo-Mediterranean and Pre-desert Scrub (Code 5330). The percentage cover under 5410 is that where this habitat type is dominant, and excludes those areas where it co-occurs with 3170 or with 5330.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MD02.02i
HK03.05i
HG05.01b
HG02.08i
MA04i
HB01i
MI01i
HE02.03i
HD03.02o
LG05.04i
HL07i
MK01.01i
MB01.02i
HD01.01i
MD02.01i
MH07i
HG01.08i
LA01i
ML09i
LJ01i
HE03.04i
LF06b
LL05i
LE02.03o
HG02.10i
HJ02.01.03i
HJ02.11i
MG01.02i
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Environment and Resources Authority
Address:
Email:natura.2000@era.org.mt

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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INSPIRE ID:MT0000017
Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)
Yes
No

SITE DISPLAY