Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water, “National Nature Protection Service” Directorate
Address:  Sofia  22    Sofia    1000  Kn. Maria Luiza Blvd.

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2007-12
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-12
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data
Explanation(s):Adopted by Council of Ministers Decision No. 802/04.12.2007 (promulgated SG 107/2007). Modified in the marine part by Council of Ministers Decision No. 660/01.11.2013 (promulgated SG 97/2013).


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Black Sea (21.00 %) Marine Black Sea (79.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      1014.11  0.00 
1140  info      5.6018  0.00 
1160  info      12.13  0.00 
1170  info      201.61  0.00 
1210  info      0.97  0.00 
2110  info      9.45  0.00 
3150  info      1.52  0.00 
3260  info      2.47  0.00 
91M0  info      94.53  0.00 
91Z0  info      0.99  0.00       
92A0  info      33.35  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
F4125Alosa immaculata         
F4127Alosa tanaica         
M1308Barbastella barbastellus         
R5194Elaphe sauromates        localities  DD 
R1220Emys orbicularis        localities  DD 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii          DD       
M1323Myotis bechsteinii    10       
M1307Myotis blythii          DD       
M1316Myotis capaccinii          DD       
M1321Myotis emarginatus          DD       
M1324Myotis myotis    51  100 
M1351Phocoena phocoena         
M1305Rhinolophus euryale         
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum          DD       
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros          DD       
M1302Rhinolophus mehelyi          DD       
R1219Testudo graeca        localities  DD 
R1217Testudo hermanni    localities 
A1171Triturus karelinii    localities 
M1349Tursiops truncatus         
I1014Vertigo angustior    150000 
I1016Vertigo moulinsiana       
M2635Vormela peregusna          DD       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                 
5040Acipenser gueldenstaedtii                 
2488Acipenser stellatus                 
5538Aidablennius sphynx                   
Arenicola marina                   
Argusia sibirica    80  100             
5562Atherina boyeri                   
1201Bufo viridis                 
Callianassa candida                 
1353Canis aureus                 
Chamelea gallina                   
Coluber caspius                 
5614Coryphoblennius galerita                   
Cystoseira barbata                 
Cystoseira crinita                   
5622Dasyatis pastinaca                   
Donacilla cornea                 
Donax trunculus                   
1281Elaphe longissima                 
1327Eptesicus serotinus                 
5639Erinaceus concolor                   
Eriphia verrucosa                 
Eryngium maritimum                   
Euphorbia peplis                   
1866Galanthus nivalis                 
5671Hippocampus guttulatus                   
Hippophae rhamnoides    30  35             
2489Huso huso                 
1203Hyla arborea                 
1251Lacerta trilineata                 
1263Lacerta viridis                 
Lactuca tatarica                   
Lentidium mediterraneum                   
2605Lepus capensis                   
5704Liza ramada                   
5716Mesogobius batrachocephalus                   
Mytilus galloprovincialis                   
1292Natrix tessellata                 
5759Neogobius melanostomus                   
Neogobius ratan                   
1312Nyctalus noctula                 
Ostrea edulis                   
Pachygrapsus marmoratus                   
5781Pegusa lascaris                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                 
5009Pipistrellus pygmaeus                 
1256Podarcis muralis                 
1248Podarcis taurica                 
5810Raja clavata                   
1209Rana dalmatina                 
5826Salaria pavo                   
5836Sarda sarda                   
2607Sciurus vulgaris                   
5840Scomber scombrus                   
5858Squalus acanthias                   
5861Sus scrofa                   
Syngnathus typhle                   
Trachinus draco                   
Trachomitum venetum    15  20             
Upogebia pusilla                 
5899Uranoscopus scaber                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                 
5906Vulpes vulpes                   
Xantho poressa                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The coast and the underwater coastal slope between cape Galata and cape Paletsa are built predominantly of calcareous sandstone, clay marls and marls. The abrasion-landfall and abrasion-landslide types of coast are predominant with an average height of 6 m, at places diversified by abrasion-accumulative areas. In the mouths of the small ravines and small rivers small area beach strips are formed that are of erosive and abrasive origin. Morphologically on the undersea slope are observed abrasion-structural landslide steps extending to 8 m depth, with an average width of 200 m. Their surface is heavily undulated due to scattered landslide boulders and in places their height is up to 3 m. Bedrock in the abrasive coast type is revealed to 400 m from the coastline represented by marl, sandstone and limestone. In the abrasion- accumulative coast (mouths of small ravines and small rivers) the rock bottom reveals at 300 m to 1100 m from the shoreline. The sandy materials extend up to 1500 m from the coast, dominated by coarse sand fraction. In depth follow silt deposits. Thе following conservationally valuable sand biotopes are present - habitat 1110 subtypes: "Coarse and medium shallow sands with Donax trunculus", "Fine and medium sands with Lentidium mediterraneum", "Pure sands with Callianassa candida and Arenicola marina", "Sands and silty sands with Chamelea gallina","Silty sands with Upogebia pusilla". Thе conservationally valuable biotope – a subtype of habitat 1170 "Infralitoral rocky bottom with perennial brown algae of the genus Cystoseira" is present. Biogenic reefs of Ostrea edulis are present, but no living individuals of the oyster are found. The terrestrial part of the site is characterized by scattered large forests and small river valleys with swamps. The site is of botanical and ornithological interest. The site lies on the Via Pontica bird migration route. In east-west direction there are a number of ravines covered with white poplars (Populus alba) with the participation of lianas (Smilax exelsa, Periploca graeca, Clematis vitalba). In the southern part there is not large firth covered with reeds, cattail and water mirror - Pasha Dere. In some regions there are native deciduous forests of different types of oak, hornbeam, at places sections entirely covered by linden (Tilia argentea). 50 years ago in the region has begun active afforestation campaign to reinforce the coastline and today as a result the predominant part of the land of the site is planted with acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), maritime pine (Pinus maritima), Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), and also some native species poplar and lime trees.

4.2 Quality and importance

The site is important to reach the desired coverage of habitat types with codes 1110 and 1170 and for the species Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Phocoena phocoena, Tursiops truncatus. The site is located in the middle part of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and is essential for reaching geographical coherence of the network for habitats with codes 1110, 1170 and for the species Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Phocoena phocoena, Tursiops truncatus. Habitats 1110 and 1170 are in a good conservation status and good prospects to maintain. Human impact in the region is related to urbanization, shipping, port activities, fishing and tourism, and in the last decade to exploration, production and transmission of natural gas. Nevertheless, the proposed SCI is characterized by good quality of the environment, allowing the conservation of the natural habitats and species subject to protection. Particularly the marine part of the site is under relatively weak anthropogenic pressures due to the relative remoteness from Varna town, prohibited coastal shipping and preserved natural landscape with deciduous forest cover and not anthropogenised beaches on the bordering territory. The terrestrial part of the area is traditionally a place for tourism, recreation and entertainment of the local population in the nature, thus forming a positive attitude towards the natural values of the residents of the third largest city in Bulgaria.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

Any Public0
Joint or Co-Ownership0

4.5 Documentation

Data on marine part of the site provided and revised by V.Todorova, M.Panayotova - Institute of Oceanology, BAS/1-vi May Str. 40, 9000 Varna/; Initial proposal and description of the site made by Boris Nikolkov, Alexander Dutsov, Stoyan Nikolov - Bulgarian Ornithological Centre/Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd. 1, Sofia; Antoaneta Petrova - Botanical Garden, BAS; A. Tsekov, I. Dobrovolov; R. Tsonev - Faculty of Biology, Sofia University; Ch.Gusev, Dimitar Berov - IBER-BAS/Gagarin Str. 2, Sofia. Data revised by a team of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ( Documents: CORINE HABITATS database. V. Todorova et al., 2012. Report on implementation of grant Contract No. 7976 / 04.04.2011, between EMEPA and the Institute of Oceanology. Project: "Expansion of the Natura 2000 ecological network in the Bulgarian Black Sea marine area to overcome the moderate insufficiencies regarding marine habitats 1110 "Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time" and 1170"Reefs"and species 4125 Alosa immaculata, 1349 Tursiops truncatus and 1351 Phocoena phocoena and partial filling of scientific reserve for habitat 1180 " Submarine structures made by leaking gases" and species 1349 Tursiops truncatus in accordance with the conclusions from the Marine Black Sea Seminar, Brindisi, 15 June 2010". Fund of IO-BAS. Assessment of the current status of waters in the Black Sea Basin region for 2010. Basin Directorate for water management in the Black Sea region. Http:// New data provided by project "Mapping and assessment of the conservation status of the natural habitats and species - Phase 1" (see link).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

5.3 Site designation (optional)

Protected Site "Liman" is declared with the aim to protect the firth and its flora and fauna. Protected Site "Rakitnik" is declared with the aim to protect the habitat of Seabuckthorn / Hippophae rhamnoides L./.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water - Varna
Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water
Organisation:Basin Directorate for Water Management in the Black Sea Region – Varna
Organisation:Regional Forest Directorate Varna

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

It is necessary to conserve the existing sections with natural vegetation, especially the coastal natural forests of white poplar and hornbeam forests near Chernomorets hut with numerous populations of bulbous plants. Afforestation with coniferous species should be completely stopped and after the felling of the existing plantations of pine their places to be replanted with local species. Appropriate measures against physical impacts on habitats 1110 and 1170 include: ban on the extraction of sand, gravel, stones; prohibition of breaking rocks, moving of rock blocks and stones; prohibiting burial of habitats subject of protection under dredge disposals; ban on sealing of habitats subject of protection with permanent structures, including artificial underwater reefs and islands; prohibition of conducting actions associated with interference in hydrological processes leading to significant changes in temperature regime, salinity, currents and wave effects; ban on the use of bottom trawling and dredging equipment, including sucking dredgers; prohibition of prospecting, exploration and exploitation of natural resources in zone "A" of the Black Sea coast under Black Sea Coast Development Act; prohibition of the introduction of solid waste. Appropriate measures against chemical impacts on habitats 1110 and 1170 include: prohibiting the discharge of untreated wastewater, the quantity and quality of treated waters must meet the requirements for individual emission limits specified in the discharge permit issued in accordance with the requirements of the Water Act ; prohibition on discharge of treated wastewater to a depth less than 20 meters; application of deep discharge; prohibition on introduction of hazardous substances - synthetic, non-synthetic and radionuclides. Necessary measures against selective fishing and collection of species, including by-catch, to protect habitats 1110 and 1170 and species 4127 Alosa tanaica and 4125 Alosa immaculata: Ban on commercial and recreational fishing of fish and molluscan aquatic organisms with the following appliances, tools, accessories and devices - explosives, poisonous and intoxicating substances, electric current and other equipment stunning the fish, bottom trawling and dredging equipment, firearms, jigging; Prohibiting fishing for Alosa spp. species during their period of reproduction; Prohibiting fishing, carrying, transport, sell and buy of Alosa spp. smaller than 22 cm.; In case of determining status changes to the stocks of Alosa spp. threatening their natural reproduction and economic importance, the Minister of Agriculture and Food in coordination with the Minister of Environment and Water imposes a ban on their use for a period of time not less than one year; Ban on commercial fishing of sand mussels Donacilla cornea, Donax trunculus, Chamelea gallina and decapods Upogebia pusilla and Callianassa candida; Permissible quantities for recreational fishing are up to 1 kg for Donacilla cornea, Donax trunculus, up to 2 kg for Chamelea gallina, up to 0.5 kg for crustacean Upogebia pusilla; Ban on commercial and recreational catch of polychaete worms Arenicola marina and decapods Callianassa spp.; Ban on commercial fishing of Mytilus galloprovincialis from natural mussel banks on rocky bottom and sediment; Permissible quantities for recreational catch of Mytilus galloprovincialis are up to 2 kg.; Prohibiting of fishing, carrying and transport of Mytilus galloprovincialis from natural mussel banks on rocky bottom and sediment smaller than 7 cm; Prohibition of commercial catch of warty crab Eriphia verrucosa. Permissible quantities for recreational fishing are up to 1 kg; Prohibiting of fishing, carrying and transport of warty crabs Eriphia verrucosa smaller than 5 cm; Prohibiting fishing for warty crab Eriphia verrucosa during the period 1 April to 31 May; Prohibition of picking, collecting, cutting, uprooting or otherwise destroying the specimens of sea grass species Zostera marina, Z. noltii, Zannichellia palustris, Potamogeton pectinatus in their natural range; Prohibition of picking, collecting, cutting, uprooting or otherwise destroying the specimens in their natural range of the species of macroalgae Cystoseira spp, Phyllophora crispa. Necessary measures for the protection of cetaceans 1349 Tursiops truncatus, 1351 Phocoena phocoena and 1350 Delphinus delphis: Prohibited all forms of deliberate capture or killing of specimens by any appliances, tools and methods; persecution and disturbance, particularly during the period of breeding, rearing, wintering and migration; taking found dead specimens; possession, rearing, transportation, carrying, export, trading and offering for sale or exchange of specimens taken from the wild; taxidermy, possession, display in public, handling, transportation, export, trading and offering for sale or exchange of taxidermy specimens. Equipment of fixed fishing gear with repellent devices. Necessary measures against invasive alien species: Subsidized catch of Rapana venosa and egg cocoons by scuba method and traps; Deliberate introduction into the marine environment of alien species is prohibeted; Prohibited reballasting of ships in the aquatory of the SCI. For prevention appropriate assessment under art. 6 of the Habitats Directive is needed for the following projects and investment proposals: the construction of harbors and port installations shore reinforcement and shore protection constructions (dikes, jetties, breakwaters); prospecting, exploration and exploitation of natural resources; prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil, natural gas and unconventional hydrocarbons; construction of oil and gas pipelines; facilities for the production of electricity by wind power; farming of fish and shellfish aquatic organisms; underwater or floating constructions for tourist purposes. In order to control the status and effectiveness of conservation management measures monitoring of the conservation status of habitats and species populations is needed.



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