Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Peshtera Mandrata

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water, “National Nature Protection Service” Directorate
Address:  Sofia  22    Sofia    1000  Kn. Maria Luiza Blvd.

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2007-03
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-12
Date site designated as SAC:2020-12
National legal reference of SAC designation:Designation Order No. RD – 1036/17.12.2020 (promulgated SG 19/2021) issued by the Minister of Environment and Water.
Explanation(s):Adopted by Council of Ministers Decision No. 122/02.03.2007 (promulgated SG 21/2007). Amended by Council of Ministers Decision No. 598/22.07.2016 (promulgated SG 59/2016), including the area of SCI BG0000607 deleted with the same Decision. Issued by the Minister of Environment and Water designation Order No. RD – 1036/17.12.2020 (promulgated SG 19/2021) with prohibitions and restrictions on activities contradicting the conservation objectives of the site.


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Continental (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
8310  info      2.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
M1352Canis lupus          DD       
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii    600  1500 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii    100 
M1323Myotis bechsteinii          DD       
M1307Myotis blythii    100 
M1316Myotis capaccinii    51  100 
M1321Myotis emarginatus    11  50 
M1324Myotis myotis    100 
M1306Rhinolophus blasii    11  50 
M1305Rhinolophus euryale    400  1000 
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum    100  800 
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros    50 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Niphargus bureschi               
Typhloiulus bureschi               
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

BG0000266 comprises a complex of two caves in the land of Village Mikre, Ugarchin municipality, Lovech district. These are “Mandrata” cave (“Goljamata Mikrenska Peshtera” cave) and “Malkata Mikrenska Peshtera” cave (“Mikre” cave). The site covers forest areas which are state property. The entrances of the two caves are located on 120 m from one another. The total length of the mapped underground passages of the “Mandrata” cave is 1,9 km. This cave has been used for dairy and mushroom in the past and because of that now there are remains of the facilities that have been used. The entrance is obstructed from a crumbling building and around 300 m of input ground has been cemented. The natural flow of the underground river has been damaged by water intake. There is 2 meters tall barrage inside the cave. Because of the easy access in it regularly enter caving tourists, hunters, treasure-hunters, local residents and others. The cave is located in guarded hunting reserve, which somewhat limits the mass access of people. The total length of the mapped underground passages of the “Malkata Mikrenska Peshtera” cave is 1,3 km.

4.2 Quality and importance

The two caves in the site represent the habitat type 8310-“Caves not open to the public”. Furthermore “Mandrata” cave (“Goljamata Mikrenska Peshtera” cave) is one of the most significant caves for bat conservation in Bulgaria - bat refuge that all-year is inhabited by bat colonies. The cave is used by at least 5 cave-dwelling bat species whose total number in the summer runs to 1564 individuals and at least 274 individuals in the winter. The cave fauna is quite well explored – there are known several regional endemic species.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Initial proposal and description of two separate sites: BG0000266 “Peshtera Mandrata” made by PANDOURSKI I., V.POPOV, Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd.,. 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria; BG0000607 “Peshtera Mikre” made by Teodora Ivanova,;Data revised by a team of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ( for uniting the both sites made by Boyan Petrov (BRCC-NMNH-BAS) due to a technical error in the initial proposal and description. New data provided by project "Mapping and assessment of the conservation status of the natural habitats and species - Phase 1".Other listed documents: BENDA P., T. IVANOVA, I. HORÁCHEK, V. HANÁK, J. CHERVENÝ, J. GAISLER, A. GUEORGUIEVA, B. PETROV, V. VOHRALÍK, 2003. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the Eastern Mediterranean, Part 3: Review of bat distribution in Bulgaria. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 67: 245-357.BERON P. 1958: Po oprustenjavaneto na prilepi v Bulgarija [About bat-banding in Bulgaria]. Priroda (Sofija) 7(5):70-76 (in Bulgarian).BERON P. 1962: Vertebrata. Pp.: 344-356. In: GUÉORGUIEV V. & BERON P.: Essai sur la faune cavernicole de Bulgarie. Ann. Spéléol. 17(2): 285-356.BERON P. 1963: La baguage des Chauves-souris en Bulgarie de 1940 à 1961. Acta Theriol. 7: 33-49. BERON P. 1964b: Golemite prilepni pesteri v Bulgarija [Les grandes grottes à chauves-souris en Bulgarie]. BulgarskiPesteri (Grottes Bulgares) (Sofija) 1(1-2): 37-43 (in Bulgarian, French summ.).BERON P. 1972: Essai sur la fauna cavernicole de Bulgarie. III. Résultats des recherches biospéléologiques de 1966 à 1970. Int. J. Speleol. 4: 285-349.341BERON P. 1994: Résultats des recherches biospéléologiques en Bulgarie de 1971 à 1994 et liste des animaux cavernicoles bulgares. Série Tranteeva (Sofija) 1: 1-139.BERON P. 1999: Biodiversity of the high mountain terrestrial fauna in Bulgaria. Historia Natur. Bulg. 10: 13-33.BERON P. & GUÉORGUIEV V. 1967: Essai sur la faune cavernicole de Bulgarie. II. Résultats des recherches biospéologiques de 1961 à 1965. Izv. Zool. Inst. Muz. (Sofija) 24: 151-212.BERON P., BESHKOV V., POPOV V., VASSILEV M., PANDURSKA R. & IVANOVA T. BESHKOV V. A. 1998: The Bats of Bulgaria. Pp.: 453-466. In: MEINE C. (ed.): Bulgaria's Biological Diversity: Conservation Status and Needs Assessment. Vol. I. and II. Washington: Biodiversity Support Program, 839 pp.BESKOV V. 1993: Prilepi [Bats]. Pp.: 631-644. In: SAKALJAN M. & MAJNI K. (eds.): Programa za Poddurzane naBiologichnoto Raznoobrazie. Nacionalna strategija za opazvane na biologichnoto raznoobrazie. Osnovni Dokladi.Tom 1 [Programme of Biodiversity Conservation. National Strategy of Protection of Bidiversity. Basic Studies.Volume 1]. Sofija & Washington: NBDCS & BSP, 664 pp (in Bulgarian).BESKOV V., DONCHEV S., KARAPETKOVA M., NIKOLOV N., MESINEV T. & POPOV V. BUIS Ja. & IVANOVA T. 2002: Sresta na izsledovatelnite na bozajnici v Iztochni Rodopi [Meeting for research of mammals in Eastern Rhodopes]. Historia Natur. Bulg. 15: 142 (in Bulgarian).BURES I. 1917: Po faunata na prilepite (Chiroptera) vu Bulgarija [Über die Chiropterenfauna Bulgariens]. Spis.Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 15: 137-174 (in Bulgarian, Germ. Summ.).BURES I. 1924: Pesterna fauna v' Bulgarija [Cave fauna of Bulgaria]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 11: 143-163 (in Bulgarian).BURES I. 1925: Prilepite v Bulgarija [Bats of Bulgaria]. Priroda (Sofija) 25(9): 130-132 (in Bulgarian).342BURES I. 1926: Izsledvanija vurhu pesternata fauna na Bulgarija. II [Untersuchungen über die Höhlenfauna Bulgariens.II]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 12: 17-56 (in Bulgarian, German title).GENOV T., STOYKOVA-HAJINIKOLOVA R. & MÉSZÁROS F. 1992: Molinostrongylus spp. (Nematoda: Molineidae) from bats in Bulgaria, with a review of European species. Parasitol. Hungar. 25: 53-68. [HORÁCHEK I., CHERVENÝ J., TAUSL A. & VÍTEK D.] 1971: Prinos kum izsledvaneto na drebnite bozajnici ot Rodopite [Contribution to investigation of small mammals of Rhodopes Mts.]. Rodopski Pesternjak 7(54): 40-44 (in Bulgarian).HORÁCHEK I., CHERVENÝ J., TAUSL A. & VÍTEK D. 1974: Notes on the mammal fauna of Bulgaria (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia). Vst. CHs. Spolech. Zool. 38: 19-31.HORÁCHEK I., HANÁK V. & BENDA P. 1998: Bats of the Eastern Mediterranean: a biogeographic summary. Ztschr.Säugetierk. 63, Sonderhf.: 26.IVANOVA T. 1995: Bat research and bat protection in Bulgaria. Myotis 32-33: 145-153.IVANOVA T. 1997: Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) - study and conservation in the Eastern Rhodopes. Pp.: 170-180. In: Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Rhodopes. Sofija: Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds / BirdLife Bulgaria.IVANOVA T. I. 2003: Prilepite (Chiroptera, Mammalia) v iztochni Rodopi. Vidov sustav, biologichni I ekologichni harakteristiki, analiz na suobstestvoto, opazvane [Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) of the Eastern Rhodopes. Species composition, biological and ecological characters, community analysis, protection]. Unpubl.Dissertation. Sofija: Nacionalen Prirodonauchen Muzej, 216 pp (in Bulgarian).IVANOVA T. & GUEORGUIEVA A. in press: Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) of the Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece): I. Species diversity, zoogeography and faunal patterns. In: BERON P. & POPOV A. (eds.): The Biodiversity of the Eastern Rhodopes. Biodiversity of Bulgaria. Volume 2. Sofija: Nacionalen Prirodonauchen Muzej.IVANOVA T. & PETROV B. P. 2001: Nov etap ot prouchvanijata vurhu prilepite (Chiroptera) v Bulgarija [New stage in the bat studies in Bulgaria]. Historia Natur. Bulg. 13: 88 (in Bulgarian, English title).KOVACHEV V. T. 1894: Materijali za izuchvanie bulgarskata fauna [Materials on investigation of Bulgarian fauna].Period. Spis. Bulg. Kniz. Druz. Sredec 9(47): 742-749 (in Bulgarian).KOVACHEV V. T. 1906: Vurhu bozajnata fauna na Bulgarija [Notes on the mammal fauna of Bulgaria]. Pp.: 3-16. In:Godisnik' na Rusenskata durzavna muzka gimnazija "Knjaz' Boris' " za uchebnata 1905-1906 god [Yearbook of the Ruse State Men's Grammar School "Prince Boris" for the Teaching Year 1905-1906]. Ruse: Br. Zlatevi (in Bulgarian).KVARTIRNIKOV M. 1957: Prilepite v Bulgarija. Dva novi vida za nasata fauna [Bats of Bulgaria. Two new species for our fauna]. Priroda (Sofija) 6: 63-64 (in Bulgarian).PANDURSKA R. S. 1993: Distribution and species diversity of cave-dwelling bats in Bulgaria and some remarks on the microclimatic conditions of the hibernation. Lucr. Inst. Speleol. "Emil Racovita" 32: 155-163.PANDURSKA R. S. 1994: Razprostranenie I biologija (hranene, razmnozavane, zimuvane) na pesternite prilepi (Chiroptera) v Bulgarija [Distribution and biology (alimentation, reproduction, hibernation) of cave-dwelling bats (Chiroptera) in Bulgaria]. Unpubl. PhD Thesis. Sofija: Institut po zoologija, Bulgarska Akademija na naukite, 174 pp (in Bulgarian).PANDURSKA R. 1996: Altitudinal distribution of bats in Bulgaria. Myotis 34: 45-50.PANDURSKA R. 1998: Reproductive behaviour and conservation status of nursery colonies of Myotis myotis (Borkhausen, 1797) in Bulgaria. Myotis 36: 143-150.PANDURSKA R. S. 1999: Prilepite (razred Chiroptera) v Devetaskata pestera, Severna Bulgarija PANDURSKA R. 2003: Conservation measures for protection of important numerous bat colonies in Bulgaria.Nyctalus (N. F.) 8(6): 630-632.PANDURSKA R. & IVANOVA T. 2003: Distribution and present status of Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774) in Bulgaria. Nyctalus (N. F.) 8(6): 626-629.PANDURSKA-WHITCHER R. & PANDOURSKI I. 2002: Bats in Bulgaria, with an emphasis on Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus). Bat Res. News 43(1): 1-4.POPOV V. & SEDEFCHEV A. 2003: Bozajnicite v Bulgarija. Opredelitel [Mammals of Bulgaria. Identification Key].Sofija: Biblioteka Vitosa, 292 pp.RADEV N. 1928: Materiali za izuchvane na pesterite v Bulgarija - II [Materialien zur Erforschung der Höhlen Bulgariens - II]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 13: 115-130 (in Bulgarian, German summ.).SCHOBER W. & GRIMMBERGER E. 1998: Die Fledermäuse Europas. Kennen. Bestimmen. Schützen. Aktualisiert underweitert. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co., 265 pp.On Bats (Chiroptera)]. Leningrad: Zoologicheskij Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, 182 pp.2 [Sedentary and migratory species of bats (Chiroptera) in the European part of the USSR. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 4: Fledertiere. Teil I: Chiroptera I. Rhinolophidae.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

No information provided

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water
Organisation:Basin Directorate for Water Management in Danube Region – Pleven
Organisation:Regional Forest Directorate Lovetch
Organisation:Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water - Pleven

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)