Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Peshtera Mikre

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water, “National Nature Protection Service” Directorate
Address:  Sofia  22    Sofia    1000  Maria Luiza Blvd.

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2007-03
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-12
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data
Explanation(s):Adopted by Council of Ministers Decision No. 122/02.03.2007 (promulgated SG 21/2007).


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Continental (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
8310  info      1.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
M1352Canis lupus                 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii          DD 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii          DD 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii    500  500   
M1323Myotis bechsteinii          DD       
M1307Myotis blythii          DD       
M1316Myotis capaccinii          DD       
M1321Myotis emarginatus          DD       
M1324Myotis myotis          DD       
M1306Rhinolophus blasii          DD       
M1305Rhinolophus euryale    100  100   
M1305Rhinolophus euryale    2500  2500   
M1305Rhinolophus euryale          DD 
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum    400  400   
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum    100  100   
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum    100  100   
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros    11  50   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Niphargus bureschi                   
Typhloiulus bureschi                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The cave is located in a guarded hunting reserve what partially limits human access. The total length of the cave is almost 2 kilometers. In the past the cave was used for cheese processing. At the moment it is out of use - there are remains from the equipment used back then.

4.2 Quality and importance

One of the most significant caves for bat conservation in Bulgaria.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Initial proposal and description of the site made by Teodora Ivanova, Initially listed documents: BENDA P., T. IVANOVA, I. HORÁCHEK, V. HANÁK, J. CHERVENÝ, J. GAISLER, A. GUEORGUIEVA, B. PETROV, V. VOHRALÍK, 2003. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the Eastern Mediterranean, Part 3: Review of bat distribution in Bulgaria. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 67: 245-357. BERON P. 1958: Po oprustenjavaneto na prilepi v Bulgarija [About bat-banding in Bulgaria]. Priroda (Sofija) 7(5):70-76 (in Bulgarian). BERON P. 1962: Vertebrata. Pp.: 344-356. In: GUÉORGUIEV V. & BERON P.: Essai sur la faune cavernicole de Bulgarie. Ann. Spéléol. 17(2): 285-356. BERON P. 1963: La baguage des Chauves-souris en Bulgarie de 1940 à 1961. Acta Theriol. 7: 33-49. BERON P. 1964b: Golemite prilepni pesteri v Bulgarija [Les grandes grottes à chauves-souris en Bulgarie]. Bulgarski Pesteri (Grottes Bulgares) (Sofija) 1(1-2): 37-43 (in Bulgarian, French summ.). BERON P. 1972: Essai sur la fauna cavernicole de Bulgarie. III. Résultats des recherches biospéléologiques de 1966 à 1970. Int. J. Speleol. 4: 285-349.341 BERON P. 1994: Résultats des recherches biospéléologiques en Bulgarie de 1971 à 1994 et liste des animaux cavernicoles bulgares. Série Tranteeva (Sofija) 1: 1-139. BERON P. 1999: Biodiversity of the high mountain terrestrial fauna in Bulgaria. Historia Natur. Bulg. 10: 13-33. BERON P. & GUÉORGUIEV V. 1967: Essai sur la faune cavernicole de Bulgarie. II. Résultats des recherches biospéologiques de 1961 à 1965. Izv. Zool. Inst. Muz. (Sofija) 24: 151-212. BERON P., BESHKOV V., POPOV V., VASSILEV M., PANDURSKA R. & IVANOVA T. BESHKOV V. A. 1998: The Bats of Bulgaria. Pp.: 453-466. In: MEINE C. (ed.): Bulgaria's Biological Diversity: Conservation Status and Needs Assessment. Vol. I. and II. Washington: Biodiversity Support Program, 839 pp. BESKOV V. 1993: Prilepi [Bats]. Pp.: 631-644. In: SAKALJAN M. & MAJNI K. (eds.): Programa za Poddurzane naBiologichnoto Raznoobrazie. Nacionalna strategija za opazvane na biologichnoto raznoobrazie. Osnovni Dokladi.Tom 1 [Programme of Biodiversity Conservation. National Strategy of Protection of Bidiversity. Basic Studies. Volume 1]. Sofija & Washington: NBDCS & BSP, 664 pp (in Bulgarian). BESKOV V., DONCHEV S., KARAPETKOVA M., NIKOLOV N., MESINEV T. & POPOV V. BUIS Ja. & IVANOVA T. 2002: Sresta na izsledovatelnite na bozajnici v Iztochni Rodopi [Meeting for research of mammals in Eastern Rhodopes]. Historia Natur. Bulg. 15: 142 (in Bulgarian). BURES I. 1917: Po faunata na prilepite (Chiroptera) vu Bulgarija [Über die Chiropterenfauna Bulgariens]. Spis.Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 15: 137-174 (in Bulgarian, Germ. Summ.). BURES I. 1924: Pesterna fauna v' Bulgarija [Cave fauna of Bulgaria]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 11: 143-163 (in Bulgarian). BURES I. 1925: Prilepite v Bulgarija [Bats of Bulgaria]. Priroda (Sofija) 25(9): 130-132 (in Bulgarian).342 BURES I. 1926: Izsledvanija vurhu pesternata fauna na Bulgarija. II [Untersuchungen über die Höhlenfauna Bulgariens.II]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 12: 17-56 (in Bulgarian, German title). GENOV T., STOYKOVA-HAJINIKOLOVA R. & MÉSZÁROS F. 1992: Molinostrongylus spp. (Nematoda: Molineidae) from bats in Bulgaria, with a review of European species. Parasitol. Hungar. 25: 53-68. [HORÁCHEK I., CHERVENÝ J., TAUSL A. & VÍTEK D.] 1971: Prinos kum izsledvaneto na drebnite bozajnici ot Rodopite [Contribution to investigation of small mammals of Rhodopes Mts.]. Rodopski Pesternjak 7(54): 40-44 (in Bulgarian). HORÁCHEK I., CHERVENÝ J., TAUSL A. & VÍTEK D. 1974: Notes on the mammal fauna of Bulgaria (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia). Vst. CHs. Spolech. Zool. 38: 19-31. HORÁCHEK I., HANÁK V. & BENDA P. 1998: Bats of the Eastern Mediterranean: a biogeographic summary. Ztschr.Säugetierk. 63, Sonderhf.: 26. IVANOVA T. 1995: Bat research and bat protection in Bulgaria. Myotis 32-33: 145-153. IVANOVA T. 1997: Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) - study and conservation in the Eastern Rhodopes. Pp.: 170-180. In: Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Rhodopes. Sofija: Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds / BirdLife Bulgaria. IVANOVA T. I. 2003: Prilepite (Chiroptera, Mammalia) v iztochni Rodopi. Vidov sustav, biologichni I ekologichni harakteristiki, analiz na suobstestvoto, opazvane [Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) of the Eastern Rhodopes. Species composition, biological and ecological characters, community analysis, protection]. Unpubl.Dissertation. Sofija: Nacionalen Prirodonauchen Muzej, 216 pp (in Bulgarian). IVANOVA T. & GUEORGUIEVA A. in press: Bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia) of the Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece): I. Species diversity, zoogeography and faunal patterns. In: BERON P. & POPOV A. (eds.): The Biodiversity of the Eastern Rhodopes. Biodiversity of Bulgaria. Volume 2. Sofija: Nacionalen Prirodonauchen Muzej. IVANOVA T. & PETROV B. P. 2001: Nov etap ot prouchvanijata vurhu prilepite (Chiroptera) v Bulgarija [New stage in the bat studies in Bulgaria]. Historia Natur. Bulg. 13: 88 (in Bulgarian, English title). KOVACHEV V. T. 1894: Materijali za izuchvanie bulgarskata fauna [Materials on investigation of Bulgarian fauna].Period. Spis. Bulg. Kniz. Druz. Sredec 9(47): 742-749 (in Bulgarian). KOVACHEV V. T. 1906: Vurhu bozajnata fauna na Bulgarija [Notes on the mammal fauna of Bulgaria]. Pp.: 3-16. In:Godisnik' na Rusenskata durzavna muzka gimnazija "Knjaz' Boris' " za uchebnata 1905-1906 god [Yearbook of the Ruse State Men's Grammar School "Prince Boris" for the Teaching Year 1905-1906]. Ruse: Br. Zlatevi (in Bulgarian). KVARTIRNIKOV M. 1957: Prilepite v Bulgarija. Dva novi vida za nasata fauna [Bats of Bulgaria. Two new species for our fauna]. Priroda (Sofija) 6: 63-64 (in Bulgarian). PANDURSKA R. S. 1993: Distribution and species diversity of cave-dwelling bats in Bulgaria and some remarks on the microclimatic conditions of the hibernation. Lucr. Inst. Speleol. "Emil Racovita" 32: 155-163. PANDURSKA R. S. 1994: Razprostranenie I biologija (hranene, razmnozavane, zimuvane) na pesternite prilepi (Chiroptera) v Bulgarija [Distribution and biology (alimentation, reproduction, hibernation) of cave-dwelling bats (Chiroptera) in Bulgaria]. Unpubl. PhD Thesis. Sofija: Institut po zoologija, Bulgarska Akademija na naukite, 174 pp (in Bulgarian). PANDURSKA R. 1996: Altitudinal distribution of bats in Bulgaria. Myotis 34: 45-50. PANDURSKA R. 1998: Reproductive behaviour and conservation status of nursery colonies of Myotis myotis (Borkhausen, 1797) in Bulgaria. Myotis 36: 143-150. PANDURSKA R. S. 1999: Prilepite (razred Chiroptera) v Devetaskata pestera, Severna Bulgarija PANDURSKA R. 2003: Conservation measures for protection of important numerous bat colonies in Bulgaria.Nyctalus (N. F.) 8(6): 630-632. PANDURSKA R. & IVANOVA T. 2003: Distribution and present status of Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774) in Bulgaria. Nyctalus (N. F.) 8(6): 626-629. PANDURSKA-WHITCHER R. & PANDOURSKI I. 2002: Bats in Bulgaria, with an emphasis on Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus). Bat Res. News 43(1): 1-4. POPOV V. & SEDEFCHEV A. 2003: Bozajnicite v Bulgarija. Opredelitel [Mammals of Bulgaria. Identification Key].Sofija: Biblioteka Vitosa, 292 pp. RADEV N. 1928: Materiali za izuchvane na pesterite v Bulgarija - II [Materialien zur Erforschung der Höhlen Bulgariens - II]. Trud. Bulg. Prirodoizpit. Druz. 13: 115-130 (in Bulgarian, German summ.). SCHOBER W. & GRIMMBERGER E. 1998: Die Fledermäuse Europas. Kennen. Bestimmen. Schützen. Aktualisiert und erweitert. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co., 265 pp. On Bats (Chiroptera)]. Leningrad: Zoologicheskij Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR, 182 pp. 2 [Sedentary and migratory species of bats (Chiroptera) in the European part of the USSR. Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 4: Fledertiere. Teil I: Chiroptera I. Rhinolophidae, Data revised by a team of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ( New data provided by project "Mapping and assessment of the conservation status of the natural habitats and species - Phase 1" (see link).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water: Pleven

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation



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