Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Sinite kamani - Grebenets

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Water, “National Nature Protection Service” Directorate
Address:  Sofia  22    Sofia    1000  Kn. Maria Luiza Blvd.

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2007-03
National legal reference of SPA designationSite classified as SPA by Council of Ministers Decision No. 122/02.03.2007 (promulgated SG 21/2007).
Explanation(s):Site classified as SPA by Council of Ministers Decision No. 122/02.03.2007 (promulgated SG 21/2007). Issued designation order by the Minister of Environment and Water with prohibitions and restrictions on activities contradicting the conservation objectives of the site – Order No. RD – 834/17.11.2008 (promulgated SG 108/2008).


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Continental (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA402Accipiter brevipes     
BA402Accipiter brevipes     
BA086Accipiter nisus    13  15   
BA079Aegypius monachus     
BA465Alectoris graeca graeca    38   
BA053Anas platyrhynchos    100  100   
BA053Anas platyrhynchos      712   
BA041Anser albifrons          DD       
BA255Anthus campestris    10  15   
BA091Aquila chrysaetos     
BA091Aquila chrysaetos     
BA090Aquila clanga     
BA404Aquila heliaca     
BA404Aquila heliaca     
BA404Aquila heliaca    13   
BA089Aquila pomarina     
BA215Bubo bubo     
BA087Buteo buteo          DD 
BA087Buteo buteo    15  18   
BA403Buteo rufinus    10   
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla    70  100   
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus    10  58   
BA136Charadrius dubius     
BA136Charadrius dubius          DD 
BA031Ciconia ciconia    1000  4200   
BA031Ciconia ciconia     
BA030Ciconia nigra     
BA080Circaetus gallicus     
BA081Circus aeruginosus    175  175   
BA082Circus cyaneus    15  15   
BA083Circus macrourus     
BA084Circus pygargus    200  200   
BA231Coracias garrulus    10   
BA036Cygnus olor          DD       
BA238Dendrocopos medius    75  210   
BA429Dendrocopos syriacus    100  240   
BA236Dryocopus martius    10  23   
BA379Emberiza hortulana    175  175   
BA511Falco cherrug     
BA098Falco columbarius     
BA098Falco columbarius     
BA103Falco peregrinus     
BA099Falco subbuteo          DD 
BA096Falco tinnunculus    16  16   
BA097Falco vespertinus    30  100   
BA320Ficedula parva    10  20   
BA442Ficedula semitorquata    40  70   
BA125Fulica atra    15  15         
BA123Gallinula chloropus          DD       
BA127Grus grus    50   
BA078Gyps fulvus    10  30 
BА078Gyps fulvus   
BA075Haliaeetus albicilla   
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus     
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus     
BA338Lanius collurio    130  400   
BA339Lanius minor    10   
BA459Larus cachinnans          DD       
BA459Larus cachinnans          DD       
BA182Larus canus          DD       
BA179Larus ridibundus          DD       
BA246Lullula arborea    100  250   
BA230Merops apiaster          DD 
BA230Merops apiaster    60  60   
BA077Neophron percnopterus       
BA094Pandion haliaetus     
BA020Pelecanus crispus      10   
BA019Pelecanus onocrotalus    10  10   
BA072Pernis apivorus    150  150   
BA072Pernis apivorus     
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo       
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo          DD       
BA234Picus canus    10  20   
BA005Podiceps cristatus          DD       
BA005Podiceps cristatus             
BA307Sylvia nisoria    15  15   
BA004Tachybaptus ruficollis          DD       
BA165Tringa ochropus          DD       
BA142Vanellus vanellus          DD       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A247Alauda arvensis    300  300             
A218Athene noctua    21  21             
A366Carduelis cannabina    150  150             
A363Carduelis chloris    300  300             
A113Coturnix coturnix    160  160             
A377Emberiza cirlus    75  75             
A382Emberiza melanocephala    12  12             
A269Erithacus rubecula    1000  1000             
A359Fringilla coelebs    1500  1500             
A244Galerida cristata    150  150             
A251Hirundo rustica    15  15             
A233Jynx torquilla    15  15             
A271Luscinia megarhynchos    500  500             
A383Miliaria calandra    300  300             
A280Monticola saxatilis               
A278Oenanthe hispanica    10  10             
A214Otus scops    15  15             
A329Parus caeruleus    300  300             
A443Parus lugubris    12  12             
A235Picus viridis    30  30             
A276Saxicola torquata               
A210Streptopelia turtur    150  150             
A311Sylvia atricapilla    300  300             
A283Turdus merula    1000  1000             
A285Turdus philomelos    150  150             
A284Turdus pilaris    200  400             
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The area is located in the Sliven Mountain, which is a part of the main Balkan Mountain chain. It covers a clearly outlined orographic unit with area 15926 ha, located amidst the southern slopes of the Eastern Balkan Mountain – Udvoy Mountain – Chatal Balkan, Stidovska Mountain and Grebenets Ridge. The western and south-western limit of the area is defined by Asenovets Reservoir and the Asenovska river. On the north it passes along a watershed ridge, which is practically the highest part of the area – over 1000 m. The northern slopes are steep, covered with beech forest. The area’s southern limit passes along the southern slopes of the mountain from the town of Sliven to the grounds of the villages of Sotirya, Topolchane, Kaloyanovo and Glushnik. The area includes the whole territory of Sinite Kamani Nature Park. A considerable part of it is covered by forests – 11,015.83 ha, 10,738.85 ha of which are broadleaved forest. The mixed oak forests of Quercus dalechampii, Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens prevail. Forests of Fagus moesiaca and Carpinus betulus, as well as Tilia tomentosa and Carpinus orientalis forests are also well represented. Shrub and grass associations on silicate base occupy 2% of the area and about 6% is covered by secondary steppe and dry calciphile grass associations. The grass formations have a secondary origin. They have been formed on the place of forests, destroyed in the past. Their floristic composition is poorer than that of the forest ones, but they are richer in rare species. The rock formations, which have given the name of the site, occupy about 7% of its total area. The rocks of Sinite Kamani are qualified as separate habitat type according Palearctic classification and the big number of birds of prey, which occur there are part of the biotope characteristic of the rock complex.

4.2 Quality and importance

The area of Sinite Kamani, Stidovska Mountain and Grebenets Ridge supports 170 bird species, 41 of which are listed in the Red Data Book for Bulgaria (1985). Of the birds occurring there 69 species are of European conservation concern (SPEC) (BirdLife International, 2004), 5 of them being listed in category SPEC 1 as globally threatened, 22 in SPEC 2 and 42 in SPEC 3 as species threatened in Europe. The area provides suitable habitats for 51 species, included in Annex 2 of the Biodiversity Act, which need special conservation measures, of which 44 are listed also in Annex I of the Birds Directive. The area includes some of the most valuable breeding and feeding habitats very rare and threatened diurnal birds of prey, like Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca, Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos, Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus, Long-legged Buzzard Falco naumanni, Saker Falco cherrug, etc. The pastures near Topolchane, which hold numerous Souslick colonies, are particularly important for the feeding of these species. Sinite Kamani-Grebenets is of global importance for the Imperial Eagle both for breeding and for concentration of young birds for feeding after the breeding season. The area is one of the most important ones in the country on a European Union scale for the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug, Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius, the Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla and the Semi-collared Flycatcher Ficedula semitorquata. The Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus is represented there with significant breeding population on a European scale. The area is one of the few places in the country where the Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva breeds. Sinite Kamani-Grebenets forms a kind of air passage in the relief of the Eastern Balkan Mountain and provides roosting and feeding conditions for the migrating birds of prey on their way south. The globally threatened Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus regularly occurs in the area during the migration. Another globally threatened species – the Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga overwinter there. The Steppe Eagle /Aquila nipalensis/ is also observed in Sinite-Kamani-Grebenets during the winter.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Initial proposal and description of the site made by Girgina Daskalova, Ivailo Angelov - Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds, Bulgaria, 1111 Sofia, P.O.Box 50, phone (+359 2) 9715855, fax (+359 2) 9715856, .Data revised by a team of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences ( BDZP, 2000. Finalen otchet na proekt “Kartirane gnezdovite nahodishta na carskia orel (Aquila heliaca) I merki za tiahnoto opazvane. 1998-2000, Plovdiv, BDZP, 89 s.;BDZP/BirdLife Balgariya. 2005. “Nacionalna banka za ornitologichna informacia 1988-2005”, Balgarsko Druzhestvo za zastita na pticite;Botev, B. and Tz. Peshev, (eds). 1985. Red Data Book of Republic Bulgaria. 2: Animals. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Science. (In Bulgarian.);Iankov, P. 2002.(red.). Svetovno zastrasheni vidove ptici v Bulgaria. Nacionalni planove za dejstvie za opazvaneto im. Chast 1. BDZP-MOSV, Prirodozashtitna poredica, Kn. 4, Sofia: 204-219.;Michev, T., C. Petrov, L. Profirov, P. Iankov, S. Gavrailov. 1989. Razprostranenie I prirodozashtiten status na skalnia orel Aquila chrisaetos chrisaetos (L.), 1758 v Bulgaria. – Izv. Muz. IU. Bulgaria, 15, 79-87.;MOSV. 2005. Arhiv na zastitenite teritorii v Balgaria. Baza danni (nepubl.);Petrov, .C 1997b. Beliat shturkel (Ciconia ciconia) v Bulgaria. Prirodozashtitna poredica, Kniga 2, BDZP, Plovdiv.;Petrov, C., P.Iankov, T. Michev, B. Milchev, L. Profirov. 1991. Razprostranenie, chislenost I merki za opazvane na chernia shturkel, Ciconia nigra (L.) v Bulgaria. – Izv. Muz. IU. Bulgaria, T. 17, 25-32.;Simeonov, S., T. Michev. 1985. Suvremenno razprostranenie I chislenost na buhala (Bubo bubo(L.) v Bulgaria. – Ekologia, 15, 60-65.;Birdlife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: Population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: Birdlife International (Birdlife Conservation Series No. 12).373pp.;BSPB/BirdLife International. 2005. World Bird Database – Important Birds Areas.Bulgaria. Cambridge. (unpublished);Guidelines for evaluation of protected zones according, which include habitats for birds to art.7, par.3, under the art.6 par.1.3 and 1.4 of the Biodiversity Act. 2005. (In Bulgarian.);Kostadinova, I., M. Mihailov, (comp.) 2002. Guide for NATURA 2000 in Bulgaria. BSPB nature conservation series No5. BSPB, Sofia, 80pp. (In Bulgarian.);Kostadinova, I. 2005. Application of C criteria for Identification of Important Bird Areas of European Union importance in Bulgaria. Preliminarily implementation and analysis of the gaps. – In: Petrova, A. (ed.), Current state of Bulgarian biodiversity – problems and perspectives. Pp. 533-548. Bulgarian Bioplatform, SofiaIankov, P., Tz. Petrov, T.Michev, L.Profirov. 1996. Status of the Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) in the Mediterranean. – In: Muntaner, J. and J. Mayol (Eds.). Biology abd conservation of Mediterranean Raptors, 1994. Monogr. 4. SEO, Madrid, 77-81.;Kouzmanov, G. 1996. L`Aigle pomarin Aquila pomarina en Bulgarie. – In: Meyburg, B.-U. & R. D. Chancellor eds. Eagle Studies. World Working Group on Birds of Prey (WWGBP), Berlin, London & Paris, 319-326.;Kouzmanov, G., G. Stoyanov, R. Todorov. 1996. Sur la Biologie et la Protection de l’Aigle royal Aquila chrysaetos en Bulgarie. - In: Meyburg, B.-U. & R.D. Chancellor eds. 1994. Raptor Conservation Today, WWGBP/ The Pica Press, 505-515.;Michev, T., Tz. Petrov, L. Profirov. 1989. Status, breeding, distribution, numbers and conservation of the White Stork in BulgariaMOEW. 1998. CORINE Biotopes Database of the sites of European Importance for the biodiversity. Bulgaria, MOSV (nepubl.);Osieck, E. 2000 Filling in the requirements of the EU Birds Directive: Lessons from the ‘Dutch Case’“. In: European IBA Workshop. 29 March - 2 April 2000, Brussels, Belgium. Proceedings. BirdLife International, 86-99;Waliczky, Z. 2000 “Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance: explanation of the EU Criteria applied in IBA 2000“ In: European IBA Workshop. 29 March - 2 April 2000, Brussels, Belgium. Proceedings. BirdLife International, 12-16


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other IBA=100.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

About 70% of the territory of the Sinite Kamani-Grebenets is under legal protection through the designation of “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park in 1980 and its enlargement in 2002. The aim of the Nature Park is the protection of the typical for the region nature as well as rare and threatened plant and animal species. The Nature park includes one reserve – “Kutelka”, designated in 1983 to protect the rocky habitats and breeding grounds for rear and endangered raptor species. There are also six small protected areas designated mainly to protect the caves and landscapes. About 54% of the site covered by Sinite Kamani CORINE Site, which was designated in 1998 because of its European value for rare and threatened habitats, plant and animal species, including birds. In 2005 it was designated also as Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Regional Inspectorates of Environment and Water - Stara Zagora, Burgas; East-Aegean River Basin Directorate;Forestry Department - Sliven; "Sinite Kamani" Nature Park Directorate;

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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