Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2004-05
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-03
Date site designated as SAC:2015-09
National legal reference of SAC designation:Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 292/2015, Αρ. 4890, 4.9.2015, Αριθμός 292Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 294/2015, Αρ. 4890, 4.9.2015, Αριθμός 294


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1310  info      0.04  0.00 
1410  info      0.98  0.00 
1430  info      0.4  0.00           
3290  info      0.02  0.00           
5220  info  X     2.78  0.00 
5330  info      7.3  0.00           
5420  info      33.4  0.00 
6220  info  X     6.71  0.00 
6420  info      0.003  0.00           
8210  info      4.09  0.00 
92A0  info      0.1  0.00           
92D0  info      210.65  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA052Anas crecca           
BA053Anas platyrhynchos           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA226Apus apus           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA027Egretta alba           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA153Gallinago gallinago           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA246Lullula arborea           
R1222Mauremys caspica               
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
P2329Ophrys kotschyi    11  30   
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros                 
M4002Rousettus aegyptiacus         
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA213Tyto alba                       
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A411Alectoris chukar                   
A218Athene noctua                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A363Carduelis chloris                   
A288Cettia cetti                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
1285Coluber nummifer                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A244Galerida cristata                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
A330Parus major                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                   
A303Sylvia conspicillata                   
2010Vipera lebetina                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site is located about 20 km south of Nicosia. Although parts of the site have been seriously degraded by several human activities, a large part of the area preserves its natural character and presents some interesting ecological features. Within the site the following habitat types were evidenced:The site is characterised by the presence of Alykos, an intermittently flowing river, which is generated by two separated branches: Almyros and Alykos. The dominant species along the riverbed is Tamarix smyrnensis, which grows either in pure clumps or along with Nerium oleander (habitat type 92DO). Sporadically the riverbed is densely covered by halophytic communities with Suaeda vera, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Juncus sp., etc. (inland halophytic communities, a special type of 1410). Among them there develop small patches of annual communities with Sphenopus divaricatus, Limonium echioides, Salicornia europaea (1310). Reed beds (habitat type CY02) are also scarcely present. At the eastern part of the site (Ayios Sozomenos area), there are vertical calcareous cliffs with chasmophytic and other vegetation. The cliffs are characterised by the presence of several chasmophytes, such as Andrachne telephioides, Campanula erinus, Cheilanthes pteridioides, Euphorbia sp., Hyoscyamus aureus, Paronychia macrosepala, Selaginella denticulata and Valantia hispida. Habitat type 8210 refers to that area. On the least steep parts of the cliffs, as well as below and above them, phrygana formations are found (Habitat type 5420). The most characteristic plant representatives of these areas are Thymus capitatus, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Phagnalon rupestre ssp. rupestre, Noaea mucronata and Echium angustifolium. A great number of other taxa -especially herbaceous- grow within the above species. Several weeds escaping from the neighbouring cultivated fields are also present. Xerophilous grasslands, rich in therophytes and perennial grasses (habitat type 6220), grow amongst phrygana. The most characteristic species of this habitat are Bromus sp., Avena sp., Hyparrhenia hirta, Briza maxima, Oryzopsis miliacea etc. In the eastermost part of the site there are scattered Ziziphus lotus shrubs growing among phrygana (habitat type 5220).The habitat types described above, are sporadically present along (on both sides) of Alykos river. All of the above habitats are surrounded by a relatively flat, fertile area, cultivated with cereals. The only species found within this area are weeds of cultivation (e.g. Avena sp., Citrullus colocynthis, Cynodon dactylon, Heliotropium hirsutissimum and Malva sylvestris). Several species growing mainly within phrygana, can also be found along the margins of the cultivated fields.

4.2 Quality and importance

The ecological quality and importance of the site result from the following elements:- The alternation of habitat types with interesting flora and fauna communities. The riparian ecosystem is rather rare in Cyprus as far as its composition is concerned, since it constitutes a mosaic of several habitat types, including inland halophytic communities (rare in Cyprus) and reed beds.- According to personal observations (Kadis and Christodoulou) a total of more than 200 plant taxa are found within the site. Considering the above observations, "alpha" plant diversity (the number of plant species in a particular habitat) is higher within phrygana. - Twelve endemic plants to Cyprus were found in the area: Allium cupani ssp. cyprium, Allium lefkarense, Anthemis tricolor, Asperula cypria, Carlina involucrata ssp. cyprica, Helianthemum obtusifolium, Onobrychis venosa, Onopordum cyprium, Onosma fruticosa, Ophrys kotschyi, Ranunculus millefoliatus ssp. leptaleus and Teucrium micropodioides. Since Allium lefkarense is a recently described species its geographical distribution in Cyprus is not completely known. Still, it was found in many places of the Mesaoria plain and therefore it is not considered a rare species. Ophrys kotschyi is a rare species, characterised by the Bern Convention as "strictly protected". It is also included in the "List of Threatened Plants" compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as well as in the "European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants". In both the two catalogues it is characterised as "vulnerable" species. During the last few years a serious decline of the species populations was observed due to human activities. Moreover the species seem to have a very low reproductive success (Kadis 1995). The species is proposed to be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. According to bibliography, Allium cupani ssp. cyprium is another rare endemic taxon. The rest endemic taxa of the area are common in many parts of Cyprus. - The steep calcareous cliffs and the sloped area below the cliffs, are favorable nesting places of the fox (Vulpes vulpes). As a result the population of the species in the area is one of the biggest, in Nicosia district.- The cliffs are also important for the avifauna of the area. Four (at least) bird species nest in the steepest cliffs of the area: Columba livia, Corvus monedula, and the protected raptors Falco tinnunculus and Tyto alba. The endemic species Oenanthe cypriaca nestles in the area too.- The rare turtle Mauremis caspica, an Annex II 92/43/EEC species, is found in Alykos river. Other important species with motivation DThe plant species Ornithogalum trichophyllum is rare in Cyprus, according to the bibliography. Cryptalus parreysi, Acmaeodera quadrizonata, Sphodromantis viridis are in Cyprus at the margins of their area of distribution. Lycaena thersamon is a threatened taxon according to Heath (1981). Libelloides macaronius is an important (Koomen & van Helsdinger, 1996) and threatened taxon listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (1988) and on the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants. Pendoton bidens sulcifrons, Stenosis sulcata are subendemic taxa (endemic to Cyprus and neighbouring countries). Zizeeria karsandra is a threatened taxon according to Heath (1981) which in Cyprus is at the margins of its area of distribution.Notes: The snake Macrovipera lebetina lebetina is included in section 3.3 as Vipera lebetina.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

Any Public0
Joint or Co-Ownership0

4.5 Documentation

Anonymous. 2001. Http:bornova.ege.edutr/-bgocmen/herptiles.cyprus [Herpetofauna: 3.3, 3.4]Arianoutsou M., Delipetrou P., Dimopoulos P., Tsiourlis G., Panitsa M., Konstantinides P., Karagiannakidou V., Panagiotides P. & Economidou E. 1996. The application of NATURA 2000 in Greece: analysis of habitats. [3.1]Bergmans W. 1994. Taxonomy & Biogeography of African Fruit Bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). The Genus Rousettus Gray, 1821. Beaufortia 44: 79-126. [3.2.e]Boehme W. & Wiedl H. 1994. Status and zoogeography of the herpetofauna of Cyprus with taxonomic and natural history notes on selected species (Genera: Rana, Coluber, Natrix, Vipera). Amphibia & Reptilia. Zool. Middle East 10: 31-52. [3.3, 3.4]Brullo S., Pavone P. & Salmeri C. 1993. Three new species of Allium (Alliaceae) from Cyprus. Candollea 48: 279-290. [3.3.CY]Christodoulou S.Ch. 2000. Unpublished data on the insects. Lefkosia. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES).Council of Europe. 1992. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Appendix I (revised 1992 Strasbourg). [4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Birds of Cyprus Checklist 1997. Table of monthly sightings & yearly occurrences 1991-1996. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Birds of Cyprus Checklist 1997. Table of monthly sightings & yearly occurrences 1991-1996. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1998. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Economic Commision for Europe. 1991. European red list of globally threatened animals and plants. United Nations, New York. p. 150.Economic Commision for Europe. 1991. European red list of globally threatened animals and plants. United Nations, New York. p. 150. [4.2]Flint P.F. & Stewart P.F. 1992. The birds of Cyprus - an annotated check-list. B.O.U. Check-list No 6 (2nd Edition). British Ornithologists' Union. p. 234. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3]Georgiou G.P. 2000. Personal communication on the insects. Lemessos. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Gramp S. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vols I-VIII. Oxford University Press Inc., New York. Hadjikyriakou G. 1997. I chlorida tis Kyprou mesa apo katalogous kai pinakes (The Flora of Cyprus through catalogues and tables). Limassol, Cyprus. p. 232.[3.3.CY, 4.2]Heath J. 1981. Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Council of Europe, Nature and Environment, no 23. p. 157. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Huston M.A. (ed). 1994. Biological diversity. The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. P. 679. ISBN: 0-521-36930-4.Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the ornithology of Cyprus. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4, 4.2] IUCN -WCMC. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN. p. 154.IUCN-WCMC. 1997. Cyprus: Conservation status listing of Plants. Compiled from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre Plants Database. Status report as of 24 February, 1997. [4.2]Kadis Ch.C. 1995. I anaparagogiki viologia ton afstiros prostatevomenon fyton tis kypriakis chloridas (On the reproductive biology of the strictly protected plants of Cyprus). PhD thesis. University of Athens. [4.2]Koomen P. & van Helsdinger P.J. 1996. Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates. Council of Europe, Nature and Environment, no 77. p. 74. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Kourtellarides L. 1997. Birds nesting in Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus, Cyprus Ornithological Society. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3]Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Makris Ch. 2001. Unpublished data on insects. Lemessos. [3.3.CY]Manil L. 1990. Les Rhopaloceres de Chypre. Linnaea Belgica, Pars XII, No 8: 313-391. [3.3.CY]Meikle R.D. 1977. Flora of Cyprus. Vol. 1. The Bentham - Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [3.3.CY, 4.2]Meikle R.D. 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vol. 2. The Bentham - Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [3.3.CY, 4.2]Parker R. 1983. The butterflies of Cyprus. Entomologist's Gazette 34: 16-53. [3.3.CY]Richarz K. & Limbrunner A. 1993. The World of Bats. The flying goblins of the night. TFH Publications Inc. p. 192. [3.2.e]Tucker G. & Heath M. 1994. Birds in Europe. Their Conservation Status. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3. BirdLife International. p. 600. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3,4, 4.2]Dimitropoulos A., Dimitropoulos S., Nikolaou H. 2006. Personal Communication (observations on bats) [3.2.e]Boye P., Barbel Pott-Dorfer, Karsten Dorfen, A.Dimitropoulos. 1990. New records of bats in Cyprus (Chiroptera) and notes of their biology. Myotis, 28: S.93-100 [3.2.e]Δεληπέτρου Π., Βαγιανού Φ., Τόρης Ν., Τζιωρτζιής Ι., Ιακωβίδης Ά., Μουσκουντής Μ., Παπαθεοδούλου Α., Φυττής Γ., Πίττα Ε., Κωνσταντίνου Κ., Γιανναπάς Μ., (2016), Έκθεση Ολοκλήρωσης της Σύμβασης με Αρ. Τ.Π. 26/2015 με τίτλο «Παρακολούθηση και επικαιροποίηση της Χαρτογράφησης και των Τυποποιημένων Έντυπων Δεδομένων, συμπλήρωση πρωτοκόλλων παρακολούθησης οικοτόπων και ειδών χλωρίδας των περιοχών του Δικτύου Natura 2000 «Άλυκος Ποταμός – Άγιος Σωζόμενος - CY2000002, Κοιλάδα Ποταμού Μαρούλλενας - CY2000010, Περιοχή Σκούλλη - CY4000009, Ξερός Ποταμός - CY4000007, Κοιλάδα Διαρίζου - CY4000003, Λίμνη Ορόκλινης - CY6000011 και Λίμνη Παραλιμνίου - CY3000008». I.A.CO Environmental & Water Consultants Ltd. +9 Παραδοτέα


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
CY05A/A 6261/0.00
CY05A/A 6259*9.00
CY05A/A 5723*3.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

Alykos and Almyros rivers are protected by the Law 82/30 for Public Rivers Protection (National Designation code CY41). According to this Law, the Ministerial Council has the right to declare a river or part of a river as protected. Moreover the law states that:"No person shall break down or cut or dig into or under or otherwise damage or destroy any bank or wall of any river". The Ministerial Council may, at times and by notification to be published in the Gazette, prohibit either absolutely or on conditions a) the removal or carrying away of stones, shingle, gravel, sand, soil or any other substance from the bed, bank or wall of any river, b) the dumping of any rubble, rubbish, sweepings or other refuse in the bed of any river or on or upon the bank or wall of any river or of any part of any river.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Environment

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Alykos Potamos-Agios Sozomenos‘

No, but in preparation



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