Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2004-05
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-03
Date site designated as SAC: No information provided
National legal reference of SAC designation: No information provided
Explanation(s):“KAVO GKREKO” with code “CY3000005” is now only designated as SCI and the SPA is designated under the name “SPA KAVO GKREKO” and code “CY3000003”.


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (48.75 %) Marine Mediterranean (51.25 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      37.517  0.00 
1120  info  X     243.862  0.00 
1170  info      56.276  0.00 
1210  info      9.379  0.00 
1240  info      27.953  0.00 
1430  info      0.995  0.00 
3170  info  X     0.011  0.00 
5210  info      437.427  0.00 
5220  info  X     0.777  0.00 
5420  info      95.399  0.00 
6220  info  X     8.266  0.00 
8210  info      4.419  0.00 
8330  info      0.359  0.00 
9320  info      4.795  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis    20  50   
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus                 
BA431Calandrella rufescens           
BA365Carduelis spinus           
BA268Cercotrichas galactotes           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA083Circus macrourus    20  60 
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus                 
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA376Emberiza citrinella           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA103Falco peregrinus                   
BA097Falco vespertinus    100  500         
BFrancolinus francolinus                 
BA189Gelochelidon nilotica           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA338Lanius collurio    500  1000   
BA339Lanius minor    200  500   
BA341Lanius senator           
BA181Larus audouinii           
BA183Larus fuscus           
BA180Larus genei           
BA177Larus minutus           
BA179Larus ridibundus           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster    2000  8000 
BA073Milvus migrans           
M1366Monachus monachus   
BA280Monticola saxatilis           
BA281Monticola solitarius           
BA319Muscicapa striata               
M1307Myotis blythii     
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca    100  200 
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA094Pandion haliaetus           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis               
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA249Riparia riparia           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax    300  600 
BA307Sylvia nisoria           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA286Turdus iliacus           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA284Turdus pilaris           
BA287Turdus viscivorus           
M1349Tursiops truncatus    10  25 
BA213Tyto alba           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A411Alectoris chukar                   
Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
A218Athene noctua                   
A218Athene noctua                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A363Carduelis chloris                   
1008Centrostephanus longispinus                   
A288Cettia cetti                   
Charaxes jasius                   
2569Charonia tritonis                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
1285Coluber nummifer                   
A206Columba livia                   
A208Columba palumbus                   
Cyclamen persicum                   
2278Cymodocea nodosa                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
2571Erosaria spurca                   
2439Eumeces schneideri                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A244Galerida cristata                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
2539Hippocampus ramulosus                   
2362Hyla savignyi                   
1027Lithophaga lithophaga                   
2441Mabuya vittata                   
2466Malpolon monspessulanus                   
1322Myotis nattereri                 
1312Nyctalus noctula                 
2588Ophidiaster ophidianus                   
Orchis sancta                   
A330Parus major                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                 
1329Plecotus austriacus                 
2276Posidonia oceanica                   
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
2034Stenella coeruleoalba                   
A303Sylvia conspicillata                   
2444Typhlops vermicularis                   
2010Vipera lebetina                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The National Forest park of Cape Greko is located at the south-eastern end of the island between Ayia Napa and Paralimni.Climate: The climate of the area is semi-arid with mean maximum temperature during the summer months around 26.8 °C and mean minimum during the winter months around 12.2 °C. The mean annual rainfall is around 350 mm and most of the raining occurs from October to April.Geology and Soil:The geology of the area is Biostrome and bioherm reef limstones.The soil is generally shallow limestone and a great portion of the area especially near the sea is bare rocky with little soil which make it sterile.Flora and vegetation:The dominant vegetation of the site is Phoenicean Juniper maquis (Habitat type 5212), covering about one third of the area. A large part is planted with exotic species (Acacia saligna and Eucalyptus spp.).There is also typical vegetation of the Mediterranean sea cliffs (habitat type 1240) with communities of Crithmum maritimum, Frankenia hirsuta, Limonium spp., Ephedra fragilis ssp. campylopoda and also with annual Saginetea communities with Silene sedoides, Sagina apetala. On the cliffs there are also other species like Narcissus tazetta, Hyoscyamus albus, Phagnalon rupestre, Umbilicus horizontalis, Andrachne telephioides, Aristolochia parvifolia, Enarthrocarpus arcuatus etc.Phrygana vegetation (Habitat type 5420) dominates at many places within the site. Sarcopoterium spinosum is abundant forming extensive colonies. There is also considerable occurrence of Lycium sweinfurthii in low coastal form, not exceeding 1 m high. Among the common species in this formation are Ephedra fragilis ssp. campylopoda, Phagnalon rupestre, Noaea mucronata, Echium angustifolium and many geophytes (Narcissus tazetta, Cyclamen persicum, Romulea tempskyana, Bellevalia spp. etc). At three sites there are small patches of Zizyphus lotus (5220) along with Phagnalon rupestre, Noaea mucronata, Allium willeanum, Allium ampeloprassum.Vernal pools (Habitat type 3170) are confined to small depressions on hard limestone ("kafkalla"). At the deeper places Ranunculus peltatus ssp. microcarpus, Zannichellia palustris and Lythrum tribracteatum dominate from December to February (or early March) when the pools are flooded. When the pools start to dry up Telmissa microcarpa, Bellis annua ssp. minuta, Sedum porhyreum, Crassula vaillanti and Juncus bufonius come up.The coastline over the site is indented with rocky cliffs whereas partly submerged caves (8330) are formed at places and reefs which are prolongated underwater (1170). At one bay a sandy beach called “Konnos” is formed and another small sandy beach is formed at the edge of Kavo Gkreko. At both beaches there is sparse drift line vegetation (1210) with Cakile maritima, Salsola kali, Matthiola tricuspidata, Euphorbia peplis and few ammophilous species such as Eryngium maritimum, Echium arenarium occur without forming typical communities. The marine phytal communities consist of reefs which are characterised by Cystoseira barbata forests and at the soft seabed the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (1110) occur sparsely at shallower depths, while Posidonia oceanica (1120) dominates at the deeper depths (from 20-41 m depth).

4.2 Quality and importance

The elements composing the ecological quality and importance of the site are the following:1. It is considered as a very important biotope for the migratory birds because Cyprus is located at the crossroad of the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa and the site constitutes the easternmost edge of the island which serves as the first station for migratory birds. Twenty Annex I 79/409/EEC birds species and the endemics Sylvia melanothorax and Oenanthe cypriaca have been recorded in the site. Also, 52 migratory birds and 15 other important birds use the site.Also, many irregular birds for Cyprus (and Europe sometimes) are recorded here like the Bateleur eagle (first record for Europe), like short-toed snake eagle, booted eagle, corn crakes etc. Millions of passerines and other migratory species use the site.In addition, the site has been designated as important bird migrating corridor by the Game Fund Service (Ministry of Interior).2. About 400 plant taxa have been recorded from the site up to now, 15 of which are endemic.3. Seventy-one important terrestrial fauna species live in the site, among them several reptiles, bats and endemic insects.3. The variety of habitat types, both in the terrestrial and marine part of the site, and their good conservation status. 4. The marine ecosystem of the site retains an ecological value and significance since it contains the following features: a) the habitats of the vascular plant, Posidonia oceanica as well as the reefs which are dominated by the brown alga Cystoseira barbata are well conserved, supporting high biodiversity and b) the important invertebrate species (Charonia tritonis, Pinna nobilis etc.) which are included in the annexes of international conventions such as the Bern Convention and the SPA Protocol of the Barcelona Convention. Also the dolphin species Tursiops truncatus (also an Annex II 92/43/EEC species) and Stenella coeruleoalba which are covered by international conventions occur sparsely in the area. Other Important Species with Motivation D (section 3.3, 3.4):Állium willeanum is included in the list of rare and threatened species of IUCN-WCMC (1999) and characterised as "Indeterminate". Enarthrocarpus arcuatus is a rare species occurring on sea cliffs, mainly in the south-east coasts of the island.Columba palumbus is a game species whose populations are apparently decreasing and its hunting is under periodic ban (during breeding season).Libelloides macaronius is an important (Koomen & van Helsdinger, 1996) threatened taxon listed on the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants and on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (1988). Pendoton bidens sulcifrons, Acmaeodera guillebeaui, Stenosis sulcata, Blaps splichali, Helladia millefolii alziari are subendemic taxa (endemic to Cyprus and neighbouring countries). Catopsilia florella is a rare taxon (recently discovered in Cyprus). Thersamonia thersamon, Freyeria trochylus are threatened taxa according to Heath (1981). Sphodromantis viridis, Blepharopsis mendica, Pelopidas thrax, Broscus nobilis, Julodis ehrenbergi, Acmaeodera quadrizonata, Tentyria cylindrica, Trachyderma philistina, Pimelia bajula, Dendarus orientalis, Dendarus piceus, Erodius fabricii, Cardiophorus sacratus are taxa at the margins of their area of distribution. Zizeeria karsandra is a threatened taxon according to Heath (1981) and in Cyprus it is at the margins of is area of distributionNotes: The snake Macrovipera lebetina lebetina is included in section 3.3 as Vipera lebetina.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Alziar G. 1999. Compte rendu du 4eme Iter Mediterraneum. Bocconea 11: 5-83. [3.4]Anonymous. 2001. Http:bornova.ege.edutr/-bgocmen/herptiles.cyprus [Herpetofauna: 3.3, 3.4]Antoniou A. & Konstantinidis R. 1996. Oi savres tis Kyprou (The lizards of Cyprus). Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Environment Service. p. 8. [3.2.d, 3.3]Argyrou M. 1999. Unpublished data on marine habitats and species.Bank R.A. & Hovestadt A. 1991. Notes on the Enidae, 3: Revision of the Enidae of Cyprus (Gastropoda: Pupiloidea) (plate1-4). Schr. Malacozool. 4: 1-25. [3.4]Bannerman D.A. & Bannerman W.M. 1958. Birds of Cyprus. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. pp. I-lxix + 1-384. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Bergmans W. 1994. Taxonomy & Biogeography of African Fruit Bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). The Genus Rousettus Gray, 1821. Beaufortia 44: 79-126. [3.2.e]Blosat B., Hadjisterkotis E. & Papamichael K. 1996. Endemic snakes of Cyprus. Game Fund, Ministry of Interior. p. 6. [3.2.d]Boehme W. & Wiedl H. 1994. Status and zoogeography of the herpetofauna of Cyprus with taxonomic and natural history notes on selected species (Genera: Rana, Coluber, Natrix, Vipera). Amphibia & Reptilia. Zool. Middle East 10: 31-52. [3.3, 3.4]Brullo S. 1991. Valantia eburnea (Rubiaceae), a new species from Cyprus. Willdenowia 20: 73-76. [3.4]Charalampides M. 1989. Cyprus. In: Important Bird Areas in Europe. Priority sites for conservation. Vol. 2: Southern Europe. Heath M.F., Evans M.I., Goccom D.G., Payne A.J. & Peet N.B. (eds). Bird Life Conservation Series No. 8. [4.2]Christodoulou S.Ch. 2000. Unpublished data on the insects. Lefkosia. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Christodoulou S.Ch. 2001. Unpublished data on Valantia eburnea. [3.4]CORINE Biotopes Manual. 1991. p. 299. [3, 4.1, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1995. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1996. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Birds of Cyprus Checklist 1997. Table of monthly sightings & yearly occurrences 1991-1996. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1998. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1999. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1971. First Bird Report 1970. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 111. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1972. Second Bird Report 1971. Nicosia, Cyprus. pp. i-xvi + 1-147. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1973. Third Bird Report 1972. Nicosia, Cyprus. pp. i-xviii + 1-84. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1974. Fourth Bird Report 1973. Nicosia, Cyprus. pp. i-xviii + 1-86. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1976. Fifth Bird Report 1974. Nicosia, Cyprus. pp. i-xv + 1-66. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1989. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1990. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Demetropoulos A. & Hadjichristophorou M. 1976. Echinodermata of Cyprus. Fisheries Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Fisheries Department 4: 75-83.Demetropoulos A. 1969. Marine molluscs of Cyprus (Part A). Fisheries Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Fisheries Department 2: 1-15.Demetropoulos A. 1971. Marine molluscs of Cyprus (Part B). Fisheries Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Fisheries Department 3: 1-24.Department of Agriculture. Insects Collection. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lefkosia. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Economic Commision for Europe. 1991. European red list of globally threatened animals and plants. United Nations, New York. p. 150.Eddie J. 2000. Butterflies of Cyprus 1998 (Records of a year's sightings). The Amateur Entomologists' Society Pamphlet No.15. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Flint P.F. & Stewart P.F. 1992. The Birds of Cyprus - an annotated check-list. B.O.U. Check-list No 6 (2nd Edition). British Ornithologists’ Union. p. 234. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Flint P.F. & Stewart P.F. 1992. The Birds of Cyprus - an annotated check-list. B.O.U. Check-list No 6 (2nd Edition). British Ornithologists’ Union. p. 234. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Game Fund Service, unpublished data on ornithology and counts in Cyprus. 1999 – 2008.Geological Survey Department. 1995. Geological Map of Cyprus. Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Lefkosia. [4.1]Gittenberger E. & Neuteboom W.H. 1989. The cyprian Albinaria species, keywise descriptions, illustrations and an annotated check-list (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Clausiliidae). Basteria 56: 193-196. [3.4]Gittenberger E. 1991. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start. Zool. Meded. 65(7): 99-128. [3.4]Gramp S. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vols I-VIII. Oxford University Press Inc., New York. Grimm R. 1991. Tenebrioniden von der Insel Zypern (Insecta: Coleoptera). Biocosme mesogeen 8: 15-49. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Hadjikyriakou G. 1997. I chlorida tis Kyprou mesa apo katalogous kai pinakes (The Flora of Cyprus through catalogues and tables). Limassol, Cyprus. p. 232. [3.2g, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2]Hausmann A. 1995. Neue Geometriden-Funde aus Gesamtubersicht uber die Fauna (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ges. 85: 79-111. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Heath J. 1981. Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Council of Europe, Nature and Environment, no 23. p. 157.Holmboe J. 1914. Studies on the vegetation of Cyprus. Bergen. p. 344. [3.2g, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the ornithology of Cyprus. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]IUCN -WCMC. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN. p. 154.Kassinis N., Xenophontos M., Chadjistillis Ch. 2008. ‘Conservation Management in Natura 2000 Sites of Cyprus’, LIFE 04 NAT/CY/000013. Parakolouthisi eidon ptinopanidas tou Parartimatos I tis Odigias 79/409/EEC se 5 perioches tou diktiou Natura 2000 tis Kiprou: Kavo Gkreko, Alykes Larnakas, Koilada Diarizou, Ethniko Dasiko Parko Troodous kai Vouni Panayias. 84 pp. (Monitoring of Annex I bird species of the Birds Directive in 5 Natura areas in Cyprus: Kavo Gkreko, Alykes Larnakas, Koilada Diarizou, Ethniko Dasiko Parko Troodous and Vouni Panayias). Konstantinou G., Panagidis I., Xenofontos K., Afrodisis S., Michailidis P. & Kramvis S. 1997. I Geologia tis Kyprou (The Geology of Cyprus). Bulletin no. 10. Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Geological Survey Department. pp. i-vi + 1-142. [4.1]Koomen P. & van Helsdinger P.J. 1996. Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates. Council of Europe, Nature and Environment, no 77. p. 74.Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299. [3.2.a, 3.2.b. 3.3, 4.2]Makris Ch. 2001. Unpublished data on insects. Lemessos. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Manil L. 1990. Les Rhopaloceres de Chypre. Linnaea Belgica Pars XII, No 8: 313-391. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Mavromoustakis G. Insects Collection, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Department of Agriculture, Lefkosia. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Meikle R.D. 1977, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vols 1 & 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Êew. p. 1969. [3.2g, 3.3, 4.2]Meteorological Service. 1973. Statistics of Temperatures and Relative Humidity. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. [4.1]Meteorological Service. 1985. Statistics of Precipitation 1951 – 1980. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. [4.1]Neophytou P. Insects collection. Municipal Museum of Natural History Larnaka. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Pantelas V. & Hadjikyriacou X. 1987. Prokatarktiko schedio prostasias kai anaptyxis tou Akrotiriou Gkreko (Preliminary plan for the protection and development of Greco cape).Pantelas V., Papachristophorou T. & Christodoulou P. 1993. Cyprus Flora in Colour, the Endemics. p. 104. ISBN 9963 – 7931 – 0 – X. [3.2g, 3.3, 4.2]Parker R. 1983. The Butterflies of Cyprus. Entomologist's Gazette 34: 17-53. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Program LIFE09/NAT/CY/00427 – ICOSTACY - “Improving the conservation status of fauna species in Cyprus: from microhabitat restoration to landscape connectivity” 2010-10 – 2014-03Raehle W. 1991. Zur kenntnis der Nacktschneckenfauna der Insel Zypern (Gastropoda, Pulmonat: Milacidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae). Mal. Abh. 15(16): 141-148. [3.4]Richarz K. & Limbrunner A. 1993. The World of Bats. The flying goblins of the night. TFH Publications Inc. p. 192. [3.2.e]Shakides Th. Insects collection, Agricultural University of Athens. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Tameio Thiras. 2006 ‘Xartis perasmaton dieleusis apodimitikon ptinon apo tin Kipro.’ Ipourgeio Esoterikon. (Map of bird migrating corridors in Cyprus. Game Fund, Ministry of the Interior).Tsintides T. & Kourtellarides L. 1998. The Endemic Plants of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus & Cyprus Association of Professional Foresters. Nicosia. p. 123. ISBN 9963-42-067-2. [3.2g, 3.3, 4.2]Tucker G. & Heath M. 1994. Birds in Europe. Their Conservation Status. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3. BirdLife International. p. 600. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3,4, 4.2]Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication). Petrou A., Patsalidou Μ., Chrysanthou K., 2013. Services for mapping the meadow of marine phanerogam Posidonia Oceanica in coastal waters of Cyprus, within the operational programme for fisheries 2007-2013”. Final report, April 2013, 1- 54pp. M. Marcou (2015). The Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in Cyprus.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
CY03National Forest Park of Kavo Greco+21.00
CY05A/A 6100*21.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other IBA: KAVO GRECO+100.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

The site of Cavo Gkreko includes the National Forest Park of Kavo Greco, which was designated by the Ministerial Council Decision 38.942 (72/93), on 18/2/1993; it covers an area of 384.9 ha (41.7 % of the terrestrial part of the site, 20.75 % of the whole site). Furthermore, it includes Dasos Agias Napas (Agia Napa Forest) which is a Main State Forest with an area of 493.4 ha (53.45% of the terrestrial part of the site and 26.98% of the whole site).Kavo Gkreko has been characterised as an Important Bird Area (Birdlife International).


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Environment
Organisation:Department of Forests
Organisation:Department of Fisheries and Marine Research

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Kavo Gkreko’

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

The management of the marine area of the site is currently made according to the Fisheries Law and Regulations which interalia concerns the sound fishing management, the protection of Posidonia meadows from trawling activities as well as the protection of dolphins, turtles and seals.



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