Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2008-04
National legal reference of SPA designation No information provided


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus           
BA293Acrocephalus melanopogon           
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA168Actitis hypoleucos           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA056Anas clypeata           
BA052Anas crecca           
BA052Anas crecca           
BA050Anas penelope           
BA053Anas platyrhynchos           
BA055Anas querquedula           
BA042Anser erythropus           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA226Apus apus           
BA089Aquila pomarina          DD         
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA059Aythya ferina           
BA060Aythya nyroca           
BA060Aythya nyroca           
BA021Botaurus stellaris           
BA021Botaurus stellaris           
BA025Bubulcus ibis           
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA149Calidris alpina           
BA145Calidris minuta           
BA522Ceryle rudis           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus   
BA136Charadrius dubius           
BA137Charadrius hiaticula           
BA196Chlidonias hybridus           
BA197Chlidonias niger           
BA031Ciconia ciconia           
BA030Ciconia nigra           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA084Circus pygargus           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA027Egretta alba           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA381Emberiza schoeniclus           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA511Falco cherrug          DD         
BA095Falco naumanni         
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA097Falco vespertinus    20  250 
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA442Ficedula semitorquata           
BA125Fulica atra           
BA125Fulica atra           
BA153Gallinago gallinago           
BA154Gallinago media           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA135Glareola pratincola           
BA127Grus grus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus   
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus            DD         
BA131Himantopus himantopus    10 
BA131Himantopus himantopus   
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA418Hoplopterus spinosus   
BA022Ixobrychus minutus           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA180Larus genei           
BA177Larus minutus           
BA177Larus minutus           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA272Luscinia svecica           
BA272Luscinia svecica           
BA242Melanocorypha calandra           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA073Milvus migrans           
BA280Monticola saxatilis           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA094Pandion haliaetus           
BA019Pelecanus onocrotalus           
BA019Pelecanus onocrotalus           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo           
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo           
BA393Phalacrocorax pygmeus           
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
BA035Phoenicopterus ruber           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA034Platalea leucorodia           
BA032Plegadis falcinellus           
BA005Podiceps cristatus           
BA120Porzana parva           
BA119Porzana porzana           
BA118Rallus aquaticus           
BA132Recurvirostra avosetta           
BA336Remiz pendulinus           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA193Sterna hirundo           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA397Tadorna ferruginea           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA164Tringa nebularia           
BA164Tringa nebularia           
BA165Tringa ochropus           
BA163Tringa stagnatilis           
BA162Tringa totanus           
BA283Turdus merula               
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA284Turdus pilaris           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A361Serinus serinus                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

FRAGMA Achnas is situated about 1.5 km East of the abandoned village of Achna, which has been under Turkish occupation since 1974. Immediately to the South and West of the wetland lie the British Sovereign Base (SBA) areas. The village of Avgorou is about 3 km to the West of the site. FRAGMA ACHNAS is an artificial wetland created through the damming of a shallow natural basin created by seasonal streams. The site is situated in a low rainfall area and the catchment area of the damm is small. Water levels are artificiallly maintained by water piped from reservoirs in W Cyprus for agricultural use. Much of the dam bottom is gently shelving, creating extensive areas of shallow water and bare, wet ground that aer ideal for wading birds. The dam's fringing vegetation includes exotic species such as eucalypts and acacias, but also important thickets of Tamarisk spp and arundo donax, creating useful cover and nesting sites for many birds. On drier parts of the dam margins there are remnants of phrygana vegetation, including species such as Zyzyphus lotus, Thymus capitatus, Noea mucronata, Ditrichium viscosa, Crataegus azarolus and Echium angustifolium. The land around the reservoir is agricultural, dominated by cereal-growing fields but with a few groves of olives and fruit trees also present, particularly next to the wetland.

4.2 Quality and importance

FRAGMA ACHNAS (Achna Dam) is among the five most important breeding sites in Cyprus for two priority bird species listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive: Hoplopterus (Vanellus) spinosus and Himantopus himantopus. It was identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International in 2004 because of the breeding presence of these two waders. The dam has consistently hosted between 5 and 6 pairs of H.himantopus and between 3 and 5 pairs of H.spinosus for over a decade, despite the disturbance and water level management problems at the site (see under section 4.3). With proper management, it could become an even more important breeding site for these two priority wetland species. The artificial wetland and its environs also host small breeding populations of four other Annex I species: Burhinus oedicnemus, Charadrius alexandrinus, Melanocorypha calandra and Oenanthe cypriaca. FRAGMA ACHNAS is also an important migration stop-over point and wintering ground for a large number of migratory bird species (117 in total). The dam is one of the best sites in Cyprus for migrating members of the heron family such as Ixobrychus minutus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardeola ralloides, Egretta garzetta, Agretta alba and Ardea purpurea (all Annex I species) and Bubulcus ibis and Ardea cenerea (non-Annex I migratory species). It is one of the best sites in Cyprus for Falco vespertinus, Grus (Anthropoides) virgo, Glareole pratincola, Merops apiaster and Motacilla flava on migration and for wintering Luscinia svecica and Vanellus vanellus. The site is also one of the best in Cyprus for Ceryle rudis, which has become a regular migrant visitor to the wetland in recent years. Cyprus is on the limits of the global distribution of this predominantly African and Asian kingfishes species.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Charalambidou, I., Gucel, S., Kassinis, N., Turkseven, N., Fuller, W., Kuyucu, A. & Yorganci H. 2008. Waterbirds in Cyprus 2007/08. UES-CCEIA/TCA/CGF., / Nicosia, Cyprus., 91pp.Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou). Annual Reports, 1997 - 2007.David A. Bannerman & W. Mary Bannerman. ‘Birds of Cyprus’. 1958. Printed by Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh., 385 pp.David J. Whaley and J. C. Dawes. 2003. Cyprus Breeding Birds Atlas. Cyprus., 40pp.Game Fund Service, unpublished data on ornithology and counts in Cyprus. 1999 – 2007.Game Fund Waterbird breeding survey 2007 & 2008. Birdlife Cyprus News (Summer 2007 & Autumn 2008), Nicosia, Cyprus.Hellicar, M. 2004, ‘Poulia kai georgia stin Kipro’, Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 24 pp. ‘(Birds and Agriculture in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).Kassinis N. 2007. Waterbird monitoring in Cyprus. 17th International Conference of the European Bird Census Council, Bird Numbers 2007 – ‘Monitoring for Conservation and Management’, 17-22 April 2007, Chiavenna, Italy.Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299.Panayides P. 2005. ‘Sisxetismos kai ensomatosi ton simperasmaton tis diaskepsis pou egine sto Bergen-Op-Zoom (25 Xronia tis Odigias gia ta Agria Ptina (Odigia 79/409/EEC) me ton xorotaksiko sxediasmo tis ipaithrou’. Tameio Thiras, Ipourgeio Esoterikon. 27pp. (Report for the adoption and integration of the Conclusions of the Bergen-Op-Zoom Meeting (25 Years of the Birds Directive – 79/409/EEC) with Cyprus countryside planning, Game Fund - Ministry of the Interior).Panayides, P. 2005. Six aspects of land use and development activity that result in adverse effects to Cypriot wildlife resources. In Proceedings of the XXVth International Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists – IUGB and the IXth International Symposium Perdix, Vol. II, November 2005, 182-196.Peter Flint & Peter Stewart. ‘The Birds of Cyprus’, British Ornithologists’ Union, (Second Edition), 1992. ISBN 090 744 61 40., 234 pp.Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Environment
Organisation:Game and Fauna Service

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Φράγμα Άχνας‘

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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