Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:2010-02
Date site confirmed as SCI: No data
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Marine Mediterranean (44.11 %) Mediterranean (55.89 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      0.00           
1120  info  X     1254  0.00 
1170  info      1433.15  0.00 
1210  info      35  0.00 
1240  info      35  0.00 
2110  info      35  0.00 
2190  info      0.00         
2230  info      0.00 
2240  info      0.00 
2250  info  X     0.00 
2260  info      0.00 
3140  info      0.00         
3170  info  X     10  0.00 
5210  info      5195.16  0.00 
5330  info      358.287  0.00 
5420  info      895.717  0.00 
6220  info  X     179.144  0.00 
62B0  info  X     35  0.00 
8210  info      0.00 
8220  info      0.00 
8310  info      0.00 
8330  info      0.00 
9290  info      179.144  0.00 
92C0  info      0.00 
92D0  info      35  0.00 
9320  info      716  0.00 
93A0  info      0.00 
9540  info      716  0.00 
9560  info  X     6.621  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA402Accipiter brevipes           
BA085Accipiter gentilis           
BA085Accipiter gentilis           
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus           
BA293Acrocephalus melanopogon           
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA168Actitis hypoleucos           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA056Anas clypeata           
BA055Anas querquedula           
F3019Anguilla anguilla      10           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA169Arenaria interpres           
BA059Aythya ferina           
BA025Bubulcus ibis           
BA025Bubulcus ibis           
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus           
BA403Buteo rufinus     
BA403Buteo rufinus   
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
I1078Callimorpha quadripunctaria         
BA010Calonectris diomedea           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA365Carduelis spinus           
R1224Caretta caretta    250  350  bfemales   
P2250Centaurea akamantis    590  800 
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA417Charadrius asiaticus           
BA136Charadrius dubius           
BA137Charadrius hiaticula           
R1227Chelonia mydas    75  150  bfemales   
BA031Ciconia ciconia           
BA080Circaetus gallicus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA084Circus pygargus           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
P4082Crepis pusilla    251  300   
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA027Egretta alba           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA376Emberiza citrinella           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA095Falco naumanni           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca           
BA320Ficedula parva           
BA442Ficedula semitorquata           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA360Fringilla montifringilla           
BA123Gallinula chloropus           
BA127Grus grus           
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus   
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus     
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus           
BA131Himantopus himantopus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA181Larus audouinii           
BA459Larus cachinnans           
BA182Larus canus           
BA183Larus fuscus           
BA180Larus genei           
BA177Larus minutus           
BA179Larus ridibundus           
BA156Limosa limosa           
BA290Locustella naevia           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA270Luscinia luscinia           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA523Melanocorypha bimaculata                 
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA073Milvus migrans           
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii    3000  4000   
M1366Monachus monachus   
BA280Monticola saxatilis           
BA281Monticola solitarius           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA261Motacilla cinerea           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
M1307Myotis blythii    15   
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
P2329Ophrys kotschyi                 
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii           
BA017Phalacrocorax carbo           
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
P2210Phlomis cypria    3000  3500   
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA034Platalea leucorodia           
BA032Plegadis falcinellus           
BA140Pluvialis apricaria           
BA005Podiceps cristatus           
I4023Propomacrus cypriacus              DD         
BA266Prunella modularis           
BA013Puffinus puffinus           
BA132Recurvirostra avosetta           
BA317Regulus regulus           
M1306Rhinolophus blasii         
M1305Rhinolophus euryale    80  90   
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum         
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros         
BA249Riparia riparia           
M4002Rousettus aegyptiacus    150  200   
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA155Scolopax rusticola           
BA155Scolopax rusticola           
BA191Sterna sandvicensis           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA351Sturnus vulgaris           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA304Sylvia cantillans           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA305Sylvia melanocephala           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax           
BA307Sylvia nisoria           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA004Tachybaptus ruficollis           
BA333Tichodroma muraria           
BA165Tringa ochropus           
P2298Tulipa cypria    300  2000 
BA286Turdus iliacus           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA284Turdus pilaris           
BA287Turdus viscivorus           
M1349Tursiops truncatus          DD         
BA213Tyto alba           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Aizoon hispanicum                   
A411Alectoris chukar                   
Alyssum akamasicum                   
Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
Arbutus unedo                   
A218Athene noctua                   
Barlia robertiana                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
Callitriche brutia                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A363Carduelis chloris                   
Centaurium maritimum                   
A288Cettia cetti                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
1285Coluber nummifer                   
A208Columba palumbus                   
A350Corvus corax                   
Crassula vaillantii                   
Cyclamen persicum                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
1350Delphinus delphis                   
Eumeces schneideri                   
Euphorbia thompsonii                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
Ferulago syriaca                   
Fimbristylis ferruginea                   
Francolinus francolinus                   
A244Galerida cristata                   
Hemidactylus turcicus                   
Hyla savignyi                   
5365Hypsugo savii    grids1x1         
Limosella aquatica                   
Mabuya vittata                   
Malpolon monspessulanus                   
1322Myotis nattereri                   
Neotinea maculata                   
Ocypode cursor                   
Ophrys apifera                   
Orchis italica                   
Orchis quadripunctata                   
Orchis sancta                   
Osyris alba                   
Otanthus maritimus                   
Paronychia echinulata                   
A330Parus major                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                 
1311Pipistrellus savii                   
1329Plecotus austriacus                   
5011Plecotus kolombatovici      10         
Posidonia oceanica                   
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
Serapias aphroditae                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
Spiranthes spiralis                   
Trifolium globosum                   
Triplachne nitens                   
Typhlops vermicularis                   
Vipera lebetina                   
Vulpia muralis                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Akamas Peninsula is located at the westernmost part of Cyprus. The site covers an area of 17917 ha (56.18 % terrestrial and 43.82% marine), out of which 7187.4 ha is Main State Forest (including Akamas, Pegeia and Meleti forests). The boundary of the terrestrial part of the site, in the southwest, starts south of Thalassines Spilies (Sea Caves), following the coastline to Agios Georgios and Aspros Potamos, then to Meleti and Pegeia forests and continues west of Kathikas, Arodes, Ineia and Drouseia villages (around Pegeia forest) towards Lara bay; from Lara bay it continues to the north close to Akamas forest boundary, west of Fasli, Androlikou and Neo Chorio villages and ends near Loutra tis Afroditis (Baths of Aphrodite) in the northeast part. The north and west boundary is the sea including all islets (namely: Agios Yeorgios, Chamilis, Mazaki, Kannoudion, Koppo, Kionos, Yeronisos Manikin and Loutrabtis Aphrodhitis islet, some of which are mapped). In addition, the site includes eight satellites, that is: Chalavron (next to Anassa hotel), Kardamillis (south of Neo Chorio village), Petratis and Androlikou gorges complex (between Neo Chorio and Androlikou villages), Petres tis Drouseias (Voladjes and Petra tou Nikola, two satellites of the site north of Drouseia village), Petres tis Ineias (Yerakopetra and Alikou, two satellites of the site northwest of Ineia village) and Kremmoi tis Agias Marinas-Kathikas Koronia (south west of Kathikas village).Climate: The Akamas Peninsula as a whole is included in the western coastal climatic zone, but there are several distinct microclimates. The mean annual air temperature ranges from 16 °C to 19 °C. The monthly mean air temperatures range from about 10 °C in January to about 28 °C in July. The highest temperatures in the summer reach the value of 42 °C in the low lying areas, while the lowest temperatures in winter drop to -2 °C. However, in the higher elevated areas the lowest temperatures reach the value of -4 °C. Rainfall occurs mainly in autumn and winter, and the average annual rainfall ranges from 450-650 mm. During the day the prevailing winds are mostly westerly or northwesterly, while during the night they are mostly southeasterly, of rather moderate strength and rarely reaching gale force. Near the coast, sea breezes are frequent, due to local heating effects.Geomorphology:The topography of the peninsula ranges from a maximum altitude of 669 m near Ineia village (Petres tis Ineias satellite), to the coastline, including mountain plateaus (around 400 m), small plains, small streams, deep narrow valleys, caves, gorges, sandy beaches, rocky shores and small islets.Geology and soils:The geology of the area is mixed. The most important features are the ophiolithic complex and the volcanic formations of mainly upper or lower pillow lavas and metabasalts which dominate the northwest corner of the area and transect the areas from north to south about 2 km inland of the coast. Intrusions of diabase rock and serpentine can be found in these complexes. Large parts of the Akamas areas are covered by formations of Pleistocene conglomerates and calcareous terraced deposits. These can include all alluviums of silt, sand, gravel, marl and sandstones. The great variety in the geology of the Peninsula is an important element supporting a great biological diversity.Terrestrial vegetation and habitat diversity:Ecologically, Akamas peninsula is typical of the Mediterranean type vegetation, influenced by a marine climate. In terms of biogeography, it is classified to the Mediterranean maritime lower altitude zone (0-300m). The landscape is diverse with a variety of habitats from forest to low shrub and from cliffs to sandy shores. It includes rather undisturbed areas but at a large extent it is the result of centuries of anthropogenic influence which has influenced the physiognomy and also the flora composition of the site. The forest and shrub vegetation alternate and form various mosaics. There are habitat units with azonal vegetation such as rocky outcrops, rock faces, cliffs and gorges, steep slopes, coastal cliffs, coastal dunes, riverbeds, riverbanks, springs and water seepage areas, grasslands, steppes and human made habitats such as cereal fields, tree crops (mainly olive and carob trees) and fallow lands. The coastline is mainly rocky, sometimes forming small sea cliffs. The maritime rocks are colonised by Limonium spp., mainly L. virgatum and the endemic L. albidum ssp. cyprium (=L. cyprium, formerly thought to occur only along the northern coast), Frankenia hirsuta, Taraxacum aphrogenes and rarely Crithmum maritimum while at places there are annual Saginetea communities with Paritaria cretica, Parapholis incurva, Catapodium marinum and Anthemis rigida (habitat type 1240). There are also sandy beaches, especially near Lara bay with well developed ammophilous communities at certain places. There are several offshore islets, some of which are vegetated. The islet vegetation (habitat type 1240) has a typical zonation, with a littoral zone of pure halophytic communities with Limonium spp., Frankenia hirsuta etc. and, on the larger ones, an internal (epilittora) zone with communities characterised by a mixture of halophytes and matorral species such as Atriplex halimus, Suaeda vera and Pistacia lentiscus.At Lara bay the front line of the sandy beach (habitat type CY05) is devoid of vegetation or has sparse drift line vegetation (habitat type 1210) with Cakile maritima, Salsola kali and Euphorbia peplis. Next, primary dunes (habitat type 2110) develop with Echium angustifolium (the main dune stabiliser), Verbascum sinuatum, Eryngium maritimum, Pancratium maritimum, Centaurea aegialophila and Imperata cylindrica. Behind them, stabilised dunes with Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus phoenicea (habitat type 2250) are formed. On these dunes among the shrubs there are patches of therophytic communities of the Malcolmietalia (habitat type 2230) with Malcolmia nana, Pseudorlaya pumila, Papaver rhoeas ssp. cyprium, Biscutella didyma ssp. dunensis and Plantago coronopus; also, there are patches of Brachypodietalia communities (habitat type 2240) with Brachypodium distachyon, Stipa capensis, Aegilops spp., Hedysarum spinosissimum etc.At Toxeftra there is also barren sandy beach (habitat type CY05) and drift line vegetation (habitat type 1210) with Cakile maritima, Salsola kali, Matthiola tricuspidata and Euphorbia peplis. The primary dune zone (habitat type 2110) is degraded due to unauthorised driving on dirt-roads, yet there is ammophilous vegetation composed of Limonium sinuatum, Medicago marina and Echium angustifolium. At Cape Arnaouti narrow and short sandy beaches are formed among the maritime rocks. There is a front zone of ammophilous communities (habitat type 2110) with Otanthus maritimus, Pancratium maritimum and Euphorbia peplis followed by stabilised dunes with Juniperus phoenicea (habitat type 2250) and phryganic communities of the Cisto-Micromerietea (habitat type 2260) with Thymus capitatus, Helichrysum conglobatum, Echium angustifolium, Teucrium micropodioides and sporadically Pistacia lentiscus. Low formations of wind-shaped Pistacia lentiscus (habitat type 9320, degraded) and Juniperus phoenicea (habitat type 5210=5212) are also present at rocky places with harsh conditions along the coastline.As we move on inland extensive Juniper formations (habitat type 5210=5212) become dominant and are characterised by the abundance of Juniperus phoenicea, while Pistacia lentiscus, Prasium majus and Rhamnus oleoides ssp. graecus are common and Olea europaea, Ceratonia siliqua and sometimes Pinus brutia occur scarcely. At places with large openings Genista fasselata, Calycotome villosa, Lithodora hispidula, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Thymus capitatus and other small shrubs and subshrubs may also be present. A great number of herbaceaous plants fill the remaining gaps, such as Ranunculus spp., Anemone coronaria, Arisarum vulgare, Ophrys spp., Orchis spp., Euphorbia spp., Bellevalia spp., Gagea spp., Senecio vulgaris, etc. Such openings may in some cases represent habitat type 6220; however, they have not been sampled and mapped.Olea and Ceratonia maquis (habitat type 9320) occur mainly around the state forest land, such as in areas where Olea and Ceratonia trees used to be managed as crop trees and now are mostly grazed and degraded. The maquis are generally composed of Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europaea, Pistacia lentiscus, while there is frequent participation of other shrubs such as Juniperus phoenicea, Genista fasselata, Calycotome villosa, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Thymus capitatus, Lithodora hispidula, etc. Also, Quercus coccifera ssp. calliprinos and Pistacia terebinthus may be present sporadically. At large openings of the vegetation where grazing is particularly intense, large patches of Asphodelus aestivus may predominate.Pinus brutia forest (habitat type 9540) occurs, almost exclusively, in the state forest land. It is composed of dense or sparse Pinus brutia with a usually dense understorey of Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus, Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europaea, Cistus spp., Calycotome villosa, Genista fasselata, Lithodora hispidula, Thymus capitatus and many other shrubs and subshrubs.Serpentinophilous grasslands (habitat type 62B0) develop on rocky, stony and gravelly serpentine substrate, usually at the edges and large openings of the pine forest and maquis. They are characterised by the endemic plants Alyssum akamasicum and Centaurea cyprensis while other species frequently participating are Hyacinthella millingeni, Minuartia picta, Thaspi perfoliatum, and Carlina pygmaea and Thymus integer. Mediterranean temporary ponds (habitat type 3170) develop on flat, hard crusted rocks, locally known as "kafkalla". They have a scattered distribution and are mainly located at openings of juniper maquis, pine forest and phrygana. The characteristic plants depend on the depth of the pond. In deeper ponds there are Callitriche brutia and Zannichellia palustris. In shallow ponds there are Crassula vaillanti, Ranunculus peltatus ssp. fucoides, Limosella aquatica, Elatine macropoda, Damasonium alisma, Lythrum hyssopifolia, Lythrum tribracteatum, Bellis annua ssp. minuta, Juncus bufonius. In very shallow and rocky ponds or at pond edges there are Telmissa microcarpa and Sedum porphyreum. Due to their small size and distribution pattern mapping of these ponds is difficult and may not be complete. Another type of temporary ponds (3170), characterised by the species Ophioglossum lusitanicum, develops on shallow soil, usually at openings of juniper maquis. This type of ponds has not been mapped.Phrygana (habitat type 5420) are mainly found in the area surrounding the state forest and on degraded areas within the state forest land. They are generally the result of degradation due to fire and overgrazing. The dominant species is Sarcopoterium spinosum, but Thymus capitatus, Lithodora hispidula, Cistus spp., especially Cistus monspeliensis, are also common; in many areas Genista fasselata and Calycotome villosa are sometimes sporadically present. Grassland patches of grasses and annuals (habitat type 6220) generally have the same distribution as phrygana and they usually occupy gaps among shrubs. The characteristic species of this formation are: several Gramineae, Anemone coronaria, Senecio vulgaris, Arisarum vulgare, Tuberaria guttata, Trifolium spp., Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia dimorphocaulon, Ranunculus bullatus ssp. cytharaeus, Gagea spp., Romulea tempskyana, Hyacinthella millingenii, Erodium laciniatum, Erophila verna, Biscutella didyma, Scandix pectin-veneris, Veronica cymbalaria, Filago spp., Plantago lagopus, Plantago cretica, etc. Thermo-Mediterranean Genista fasselata scrub (habitat type 5330) occurs in areas degraded by fire and grazing. These communities are dominated by Genista fasselata subsp. fasselata; however, there is frequent participation of phryganic shrubs, such as Cistus spp., Thymus capitatus, Lithodora hispidula, as well as maquis shrubs, such as Calicotome villosa, Pistacia lentiscus, Rhamnus oleoides subsp. graecus, Olea europaea and Ceratonia siliqua.Cypress forest (habitat type 9290) is restricted on calcareous cliffs and steep slopes, mainly along gorges and streams. Forest formations with Juniperus phoenicea (habitat type 9560) can be found scattered in the area. The habitat is usually found in mixed stands with Juniperus phoenicea matorral (habitat type 5210=5212) but there also two pure stands. The understorey vegetation is mainly composed of Prasium majus, Pistacia lentiscus and Dioscorea communis (=Tamus communis).Vegetated calcareous inland cliffs with chasmophytic vegetation (habitat type 8210) are confined in gorges, such as Avakas, Argakin ton Koufon and Fargonies gorges; Ptilostemon chamaepeuce var. cyprius and Centaurea akamantis are the characteristic plants of this vegetation. The steep "rocks of Ineia", an imposing element of the landscape at the area of Ineia village, consist of sandstone, a melange of siliceous rocks with calcicolous binding material. They support chasmophytic vegetation (habitat type 8220) characterised by Silene fruticosa, Pteridium cambricum and Umbilicus rupestris. Also, typical vernal pool vegetation (3170) with Callitriche brutia developes in two small depressions formed on their top. A cave (habitat type 8310) located west of Smygies picnic site, hosts four Annex II bat species.Oriental plane woods (habitat type 92C0), mainly dominated by Platanus orientalis and Nerium oleander, are the usual vegetation of streambeds, whereas thermo-Mediterranean riparian galleries (Nerio-Tamaricetea, habitat type 92D0) occur rarely along small streams.Adiantetea (habitat type CY03) occur as small spots, only in moist situations on walls and gorge’s sides, such as Avakas gorge, Argaki ton Koufon and Baths of Aphrodite. Synanthropic communities (habitat type CY14) composed of segetals and ruderals, colonise disturbed areas, especially near cultivations and farmlands. Marine area: The western shores are exposed to the westerly winds and waves and exhibit the ecological characteristics of exposed shores, whereas the northern shores are more sheltered. The shore is generally rocky with sandy beaches, some of which are in bays. The beaches of the Lara-Toxeftra area are high profile, high energy beaches. Their front line, with no or sparse vegetation provides nesting ground to the green and loggerhead turtles (habitat type CY05). On some beaches Ocypode cursor can be found. In some areas, further north, the beaches are fringed, on the seaward side, by low slabs of rock in the surf zone. The extensive rocky shores gently slope towards the sea - and below it at some areas, while at others they are characterised by cliffs. At some areas these are high and some have partly submerged sea caves (habitat type 8330). The seabed is generally rocky with patches of Posidonia (habitat type 1120) growing between them. Further offshore the seabed, where it is not rocky, is of coarse sand, which gives way, at many places, to finer sediments. More extensive Posidonia beds are found south of Lara and at Sideronisia as well as on the north coast in much of the area. They are found generally at depths between 10 and 30 metres, but may extend down to over 40 m. Apart from the Posidonia beds, the most prominent, widely distributed and well-developed habitat is that of the reefs (habitat type 1170). It is characterised, in shallow waters, by dense Cystoseira forests harbouring a rich invertebrate fauna. A noticeable feature, mainly in the limestone areas at the north of the peninsula and including Chalavron as well as in the Lara peninsula, are the vermetid reefs, formed by the calcareous tubes of the gastropods Vermetus spp., Dendropoma petraeum etc (habitat type CY04). The sea caves (habitat type 8330) offer resting and breeding habitats to the Monk seal.

4.2 Quality and importance

The ecological value of Akamas Peninsula stems from its landscape diversity (due to variety in geomorphology, substrates and history of human impact) as well as from its geographical position at the westernmost coast of Cyprus. These factors have led to quite high habitat and species diversity and the site offers a representative example of generally well conserved eastern Mediterranean ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine. The high aesthetic value of the area has conferred a high economic value due to tourism development potential.The main elements of its importance for biodiversity are presented below:Terrestrial ecosystems:Overall, the Akamas peninsula could be considered unique in offering an extended complete pattern of lowland vegetation at a good natural state. Twenty-two terrestrial habitat types (5 priority ones) listed on Annex I 92/43/EEC have been recorded in the site. The juniper matorral and pine forest are extended and well conserved (important at national level). Akamas is one of the only three sites in Cyprus with the endemic priority habitat of serpentinophilous grasslands. The large number, excellent representativity and variety of species composition of the vernal pools make Akamas one of the most important areas in Cyprus for this priority habitat type. Also, the sandy coasts, although not extensive, support fairly well conserved sand dune vegetation (including the priority habitat of grey dunes with junipers) whose cover in Cyprus has been reduced in the recent years. The gorges of the site offer some of the best examples of chasmophytic vegetation on calcareous substrate on the island. Also, the azonal vegetation units are equally important and interesting.The floristic diversity of Akamas is important since about 700 plant taxa (40 % of the flora of Cyprus) have been recorded from the site, among them 42 endemic plants (at subspecies level).The site hosts five plants of Annex II 92/32/EEC, four of which are endemics. The chasmophytic Centaurea akamantis (priority species) is confined to the site, at the gorges of Avakas and Argaki ton Koufon while Tulipa cypria has its only population in the free part of Cyprus on Akamas. Also, a subpopulation of Crepis pusilla has been recently discovered in the northwestern part of the site. Another 48 important plant taxa (rare, threatened, protected) grow in the area, of which 22 are included in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Some notable examples of rare species restricted to the Akamas peninsula are Arbutus unedo and Bellium minutum; in addition, Callitriche brutia, Euphorbia thompsonii and Taraxacum aphrogenes have large parts of their populations within the site. Furthermore, some of these species are linked to particular geological features, such as the endemics Alyssum akamasicum and Centaurea cyprensis associated with the serpentinite outcrops. Note: Ophrys sintenisii=Ohrys alasiatica (endemic, motivation B), Ophrys transhyrcana=Ophrys morio (endemic, motivation B), Serapias orientalis=Serapias levantina.Phlomis lunariifolia is a sub-endemic species confined to Cyprus and southern Turkey.Bellium minutum (Motivation A), Ophrys hystera (Motivation C) and Tulipa sp. indet. (Motivation A) are not included in the list of other important species.Avifauna:Akamas peninsula is very important for the bird fauna; in fact it is one of the most important areas in Cyprus for the migratory birds. The total number of bird species recorded in the site comes up to 170. The site offers habitat to 55 Annex I 79/409/EEC species, 99 migratory birds and another 16 important bird species, among them the endemic Otus scops cyprius. The site is a breeding area for the raptors Hieraetus fasciatus (Bonelli’s eagle) and Falco peregrinus (peregrine falcon) and until 1990 it was a breeding area of Gyps fulvus (griffon vulture). Besides, the largest number of breeding Lanius senator (woodchat shrike) pairs, have been observed. The shrublands of Akamas support high numbers of songbirds while equally high numbers of birds rest at the rocky coasts, such as Arenaria interpres and several species of egrets and herons. The grazed areas with degraded phrygana are very important for certain avifauna species (mainly migratory) which use them for resting and feeding. The raptors Falco vespertinus, Circus spp. at migration, along with F. eleonorae during early summer as well as wheatears, larks and pipits are frequent in the area. The north tip of Akamas (offshore) is the gathering point for a large number of raptors and egrets during the autumn migration. In fact it may be one of the best areas on the island where most of the heron and egret species of Cyprus can be seen. The site also supports large population of the endemic Annex I 79/409/EEC species Sylvia melanothorax (Cyprus warbler) and Oenanthe cypriaca (Cyprus wheatear). The islets support important colonies of Larus cachinans, Apus apus, Apus melba, Phalacrororax aristotelis can be seen, while Larus audouinii is a rare stager. The site has also been designated as important bird migratory corridor by the Game Fund Service.The terrestrial fauna includes 5 Annex II 92/43/EEC bats and another 29 species of mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Among them the endemics Mus cypriacus (Cyprus mouse) and the lizard Lacerta laevis troodica (=Phoenicolacerta troodica). Also, Callimorpha quadripunctaria (Annex II 92/43/EEC) has been recorded in the site.Note: Rana ridibunda=Pelophylax bedriagae, Pipistrellus savii=Hipsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus=Plecotus kolombatovici, Coluber jugularis=Dolichophis jugularis, Coluber nummifer=Hemorrhois nummifer, Lacerta laevis troodica=Phoenicolacerta troodica, Malpolon monspessulanus=Malpolon insignitus.Marine ecosystemThe marine and coastal ecosystem of the area is of high ecological value and significance and still of high quality. It includes 3 Annex I 92/43/EEC habitats while its importance is documented inter alia by the following:a) The Lara/Toxeftra turtle nesting beaches which are among the few important Green turtle (Chelonia mydas, an Annex II 92/43/EEC species) nesting beaches remaining in the Mediterranean. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta, an Annex II 92/43/EEC species) also nest there. Both are priority species, but the Green turtle, is far more endangered in this sea. They are protected by a number of conventions such as the Bern, Barcelona and Bonn Conventions. Ghost crabs (Ocypode cursor) continue to thrive on some of the Lara beaches. They have disappeared from many of the intensively used tourist beaches in Cyprus (e.g., the Ayia Napa area beaches). O. cursor is protected under the Bern and Barcelona Conventions as well as by national legislation.b) The sea caves which are important habitats for the highly endangered and protected Monk seal (Monachus monachus), a priority Annex II 92/43/EEC species which still occurs in the area in small numbers.c) Tursiops truncatus (Annex II Dir. 92/43/EEC) is found fairly regularly in the area, whereas Delphinus delphis is an occasional visitor from open waters. d) There are many species of invertebrates, especially in the Cystoseira forests of the reefs but also in the Posidonia beds and in other marine habitats in the area, of which many (more than 15 species) are protected under the Barcelona and Bern Conventions. e) Posidonia beds, a priority Annex I habitat type, abound in parts of the area.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Andreou M., Mazaraki S., Dimopoulos P., Kallimanis Th, Moraiti C., Stavrinides M., Kadis K. 2013. Population composition and structure of Juniperus spp. in Cyprus. Frederick University. Nicosia. [4.2] for allBohme W. & Wiedl H. 1994. Status and zoogeography of the herpetofauna of Cyprus with taxonomic and natural history notes on selected species (Genera: Rana, Coluber, Natrix, Vipera). Amphibia & Reptilia. Zool. Middle East 10: 31-52. [3.3, 3.4]Charalambidou I., Gucel S., Kassinis, N., Turkseven N., Fuller W., Kuyucu A. & Yorganci H. 2008. Waterbirds in Cyprus 2007/08. UES-CCEIA/ TCBA / CGF/, Nicosia, CyprusCharalampides M. 1989. Cyprus. In: Important Bird Areas in Europe. Priority sites for conservation. Vol. 2: Southern Europe. Heath M.F., Evans M.I., Goccom D.G., Payne A.J. & Peet N.B. (eds). Bird Life Conservation Series No. 8. [4.2]Christodoulou S.C. 2000-2008. Unpublished data on the flora of Akamas peninsula [3.2, 3.3, 4.2]Costa M., Gehu J.M., Peris J.B., Biondi E. & Arnold N. 1984. Sobre la vegetation thermomediterranea littoral le la Isla del Chipre. Doc. Phytosoc. 8: 365-376. [3.1, 4.1]Cramp S. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vols I-VIII. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1995. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1996. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Birds of Cyprus Checklist 1997. Table of monthly sightings & yearly occurrences 1991-1996. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1998. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1999. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1989. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1990. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). Birds of Cyprus checklist. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]David A. Bannerman & W. Mary Bannerman. ‘Birds of Cyprus’. 1958. Printed by Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh., 385 pp.Demetropoulos A. & Hadjichristophorou M. (2009) The Cyprus Turtle Conservation Project – 29 years on. In: Demetropoulos A. and O. Turkozan (editors): Proceedings. Second Mediterranean Conference on Marine Turtles (Kemer, Turkey 2005). Barcelona Convention, Bern Convention /Council of Europe, Bonn Convention (CMS). A. & Hadjichristophorou M. 1981. Chelonians of Cyprus. Biological Society of Cyprus. Bulletin No 1.Demetropoulos A. & Hadjichristophorou M. 1995. Manual on Marine Turtle Conservation for the Mediterranean. UNEP(MAP)SPA/IUCN/CWS/Fisheries Department, MANRE (Cyprus).Demetropoulos A., Leontiades L. & Pissarides A. 1986. The Akamas Wilderness. A Report on Akamas with Proposals for its Conservation. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Cyprus.Demetropoulos A., M. Hadjichristophorou, S. Demetropoulos & D. Cebrian. 2006. Report on the Mediterranean Monk Seal Survey of the Cyprus Coasts (2005-2006). Cyprus Wildlife Society (CWS) and Department of Fisheries and Marine Research. A Report to RAC/SPA (UNEP/MAP).Dendrinos P. & Demetropoulos A. 1997. Monk Seal Survey of the Cyprus Coasts. UNEP/MAP (RAC/SPA), Mom (Greece), CWS, Fisheries Department (Cyprus).Flint P.F. & Stewart P.F. 1992. The birds of Cyprus - an annotated check-list. B.O.U. Check-list No 6 (2nd Edition). British Ornithologists' Union. p. 234. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3]Game Fund Service, Annual Reports on Ornithological Counts in Cyprus. 1999-2008.Georghiou K., Economidou E., Legakis A., Makris C., Nicolaidou A., Iezekiel S.A., Christodoulou C.S., Hadjichristoforou M. 2001. NATURA 2000 Standard Data Form “CY4000010: Chersonisos Akama.” Printout from Database BIOCYPRUS99.Iezekiel S. 1997-2001. Unpublished data: breeding of raptors in Cyprus. [3.2a]Iezekiel S. 1998-2001. Unpublished data: PhD Thesis: Ecology of the Bonelli’s Eagle in Cyprus. [3.2a, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data from the Griffon Vulture project. [3.2a, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the ornithology and bats of Cyprus. [3.2a,b, 3.2c, 3.3, 3.4]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the status of Accipiter gentilis, Corvus corax, Falco peregrinus in Cyprus. [3.3, 4.2]Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.KASSINIS, N. (2007): Long-legged Buzzard breeding distribution and abundance in Cyprus. - Abstracts of the 17th International Conference of the European Bird Census Council, Italy.Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Programme (METAP). 1995. Conservation Management Plan for the Akamas Peninsula.Pantelas V. & Iezekiel S. 1995. The status of Griffon vultures in Cyprus. Sanctuary, The Ministry of Defence Conservation magazine 24: xx [3.2a, 4.2]Pantelas V., Tsintides T. & Antoniou A. 1986. The Akamas Peninsula Provisional Action Plan. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.Ramos-Espla A. A., D. Cebrian and A. Demetropoulos. 2007. Biodiversity Concerns in Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Coastal Area Management Programme (Camp) for Cyprus. Project Report on Biodiversity Concerns prepared for RAC/SPA (UNEP/MAP) within the CAMP project. A.A., Bayle-Sempere J.T., Pablo-Sanchez J., Valle-Perez P., Gonzalaz-Correa, Sanchez-Lizaso JL., Argyrou M., Hadjichristophorou M., Demetropoulos A. 2004. Identification of sites of conservation interest to elaborate a national management plan for the development of Marine Protected Areas in Cyprus. (MedMPA –EU project. Final Report) Report to RAC/SPA(UNEP/MAP)/Department of Fisheries and Marine Research.Tameio Thiras. 2006. ‘Xartis perasmaton dieleusis apodimitikon ptinon apo tin Kipro.’ Ipourgeio Esoterikon. (Map of bird migrating corridors in Cyprus. Game Fund, Ministry of the Interior).Tsintides T., Christodoulou C.S., Delipetrou P. & Georgiou K. (eds). 2007. The Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Lefkosia: Cyprus Forestry Association. ISBN 978-9963-9288-0-4. p. 468. [4.2]Tsintides T., Christodoulou Ch., Demeropoulos C. 2013. Management plan of the priority habitat type 9560* with Juniperus phoenicea at Akamas Penincula. Department of Forests. Nicosia. [3.1, 4.1]Tucker G. & Heath M. 1994. Birds in Europe. Their Conservation Status. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3. BirdLife International. p. 600.Tucker G. & Heath M. 1994. Birds in Europe. Their Conservation Status. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3. BirdLife International. p. 600. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3,4, 4.2]Zomeni M., Vogiatzakis I. 2013. Monitoring Plan for priority habitat 9560* (endemic forests with Juniperus phoenicea) at Akamas peninsula. Open University of Cyprus. Nicosia. [4.2]Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication). Demetropoulos, A., M. Hadjichristophorou, A. Pistentis, A. Mastrogiacomo, S. Demetropoulos (2015). “Report on the Cyprus Turtle Conservation Project in 2015”, as submitted to the Department of Fisheries and Marine Research (DFMR) of Cyprus. Cyprus Wildlife Society (CWS). Nicosia, Cyprus. 36pp. Petrou A., Patsalidou Μ., Chrysanthou K., 2013. Services for mapping the meadow of marine phanerogam Posidonia Oceanica in coastal waters of Cyprus, within the operational programme for fisheries 2007-2013”. Final report, April 2013, 1- 54pp. M. Marcou (2015). The Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in Cyprus.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

5.3 Site designation (optional)

There are three Main State Forests within the site: Akamas Forest (5809 ha), Pegeia Forest (1359.7 ha) and Meleti Forest (18.7 ha).The Lara-Toxeftra coastal area, which includes the most important nesting habitats for green turtles as well as an important nesting area for Loggerhead turtles, has been protected as a Nature Reserve since 1989. The conservation status of the area is regulated in accordance to the provisions of the Fisheries Law (CAP 135) and the Regulations (273/90). The management measures for the area are included in the Regulations and aim at the management, protection and sustainability of the marine turtle populations and the protection of their nesting habitats. The Lara-Toxeftra Marine Reserve covers 10 km of coastline and the sea to the 20 m isobaths. The reserve has a total area of 650 ha, 100 ha of which are terrestrial and 550 ha are marine. The Lara-Toxeftra Marine Reserve is located in the south-western part of Akamas peninsula.The area of Lara-Toxeftra (650 ha) is also designated as a Barcelona Convention Special Protected Area (UNEP Directory) and as a Council of Europe Biogenetic Reserve.Finally, the whole of the proposed Natura 2000 "Akamas Peninsula" is also proposed as a Special Protection Area according to Dir. 79/409/EEC as well as an additional area near Kathikas (Mountiko), which includes gorges and cliffs.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Fisheries and Marine Research
Organisation:Department of Environment