Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2005-12
National legal reference of SPA designation No information provided
Date site proposed as SCI:2009-03
Date site confirmed as SCI: No information provided
Date site designated as SAC:2015-09
National legal reference of SAC designation:Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 292/2015, Αρ. 4890, 4.9.2015, Αριθμός 292Ε.Ε. Παρ. ΙΙΙ(Ι) Κ.Δ.Π. 294/2015, Αρ. 4890, 4.9.2015, Αριθμός 294


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1210  info      1.754  0.00 
1240  info      5.262  0.00 
1410  info      0.43  0.00 
1430  info      0.877  0.00 
2110  info      5.262  0.00 
5220  info  X     0.43  0.00 
5420  info      0.877  0.00 
9320  info      6.139  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA228Apus melba           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA516Charadrius leschenaultii    10  25           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA134Cursorius cursor           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA131Himantopus himantopus           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA270Luscinia luscinia           
BA272Luscinia svecica           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Anthemis tomentosa                   
1274Chalcides ocellatus                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
Cyclamen persicum                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
2010Vipera lebetina                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site of Faros Kato Pafou consists of the Pafos headland immediately to the west of Kato Pafos and Pafos castle and marina. The entire area lies within the ‘Tombs of the Kings’ archaeological site – a World Heritage Site that is one of the most important and most popular archaeological sites in Cyprus. The archaeological site is fenced in and includes the Paphos lighthouse, which sits on the highest point of the headland - a small hill of some 22 metres elevation. There are some small cliffs near the lighthouse hill. A number of excavations have taken place within the archaeological site (some of these ongoing) and a small number of buildings and several temporary structures housing excavated remains and information centres are present. The fenced-in area is dominated by open grassland with remnant patches of scrub and planted species. This area used to be grazed and browsed by goats and sheep but this activity has been restricted in recent years. Beyond and to the seaward side of the fenced-in archaeological area is a narrow coastal stretch with mostly rocky and some sandy shores. The sandy beaches are popular with bathers.Vegetation:Along most of the coastal part of the site (south and west, just outside the fenced archaeological site) there is typical vegetation of the Mediterranean Sea cliffs (habitat type 1240) with Crithmum maritimum, Frankenia hirsuta, Limonium virgatum, Limonium albidum ssp. cyprius, Limonium sinuatum, Silene sedoides, Sedum litoreum, Enarthrocarpus arcuatus and Cichorium spinosum.The sandy part of the site, which is degraded by human activities, comprises a narrow belt along the northwest part of site and it is sparsely colonised by Cakile maritima, Salsola kali and Mattthiola tricuspitata (habitat type 1210). A part of the sandy coast is flat and thickly covered by communities of Glaucium flavum, Limonium sinuatum, Matthiola tricuspidata, Cichorium spinosum, Cynodon dactylon, Salsola kali and Cakile maritime. These formations are most probably degradations of former embryonic dunes but today they do not constitute a representative habitat.A special type of embryonic shifting dunes (habitat type 2110) with mat-forming Echium angustifolium occurs at the north edge. The floristic composition of these communities is characterised by Echium angustifolium, which dominates, Plantago lagopus, Plantago coronopus ssp. commutata, Limonium sinuatum, Avena sp., Chrysanthemum coronarium, Heliotropium hirsutissimum, Crepis aspera, Eryngium maritimum, Anthemis tomentosa, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Elymus farctus, Bromus spp., Cynodon dactylon etc.A single patch of Mediterranean salt medows (Juncetea maritimi) (habitat type1410) with Juncus accutus and Juncus heldreichianus occurs on a small depression between the maritime rocks and the sandy seashore.Mainly along the coast and also within the archaeological site there are colonies of Lycium sweinfurthii along with Asparagus stipularis, Noaea mucronata, Capparis spinosa. These have provisionally been assigned to habitat type 1430: Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea). Other species participating in these communities include Noaea mucronata, Sarcopoterium spinosum and the endemic Bosea cypria, which occurs only on rocky places inland.Ziziphus lotus (habitat type 5220) does not form large colonies anywhere, but it occurs at a few places as an individual shrub or in small groups, along with Noaea mucronata and Asparagus stipularis. It is noteworthy that the site is the westernmost point of Ziziphus lotus distribution on the island.Phrygana vegetation (habitat type 5420) occurs on the top of the cliffs within the fenced archaeological site and consists of Sarcopoterium spinosum, Thymus capitatus, Phagnalon rupestre ssp. graecum, Noaea mucronata, Teucrium micropodioides, Teucrium divaricatum ssp. canescens. Echium angustifolium, Capparis spinosa, Ephedra fragilis ssp. campylopoda, Paronychia macrosepala; Cardopadium corymbosum and Hyparrhenia hirta are also sporadically present. The vertical cliffs lack the typical chasmophytic communities and host only sparse vegetation of Valantia hispida and Parietaria judaica.Woodlands dominated by Pistacia atlantica (habitat type 9320) are found to the east and central part. These formations occur as small or large groups of tall Pistacia atlantica with closed canopy and frequent occurrence of smaller trees. Olea europaea and Ceratonia siliqua are sporadic and most probably they have been planted. Also, Prunus dulcis (almond tree) and Carya pecan (pecan nut) are occasionally present as planted trees. In Cyprus, Pistacia atlantica is chiefly distributed to the southwest of the island, mainly as single tree in abandoned fields, field margins and rocky slopes and very rarely forms small and sparse stands. Very often it is found in yards of old houses, especially villages of the Pafos district, and near chapels.The vegetation of the larger part of the fenced archaeological site consists of synanthropic communities, which are apparently the result of overgrazing. These expanses are covered by Echium angustifolium, Limonium sinuatum, Phagnalon rupestre ssp. graecum, Echinops spinosissimus, Oryzopsis miliacea, Avena spp., Bromus spp., Asphodelus aestivus, Asparagus stipularis, Carlina involucrata ssp. cyprica, Salvia verbenaca, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Scolymus hispanicus, Hypericum triquetrifolium, Noaea mucronata, Verbascum sinuatum etc.Within the site there are plantations of exotic and indigenous species, especially around the archaeological monuments; the main alien species used in the plantations are Casuarina spp. Pinus spp., Acacia saligna and Dodonea viscose, whereas the indigenous are Pistacia lentiscus, Nerium oleander and Atriplex halimus. Furthermore, on disturbed and waste land adventive species such as Nicotiana glauca and Withania somnifera are frequent.A dirt road -accessible to cars- runs along the perimeter of the fenced-in archaeological area on the seaward edges of the site between the fence and the coastal strip. A number of walking tracks also exist in the area just behind the coastal strip.

4.2 Quality and importance

The site of Faros Kato Pafou is among the three most important migration stop-over and wintering sites for the Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii in Cyprus (the other two are on the Ayia Thekla-Liopetri coast in the SE corner of the Island and at Akrotiri salt lake). There are between 50 and 200 pairs of this plover breeding in Turkey (Snow & Perrins, 1998) and a significant part of this breeding population uses the coastal stretch of the Faros Kato Pafou on migration and for over-wintering. The site is also an important migration stop-over point and ‘launching pad’ for a great variety of birds, with small passerines and waders predominant. The coastal strip is important for waders in this context, while the open grassland and low scrub on the headland is utilised as a resting and feeding area by passerines. The importance of the headland for migrants can most probably be attributed to the fact that it is the south-west corner of the Island – and is therefore an important way-marker and orientation point for incoming migrants – and also to the fact that it represents an ‘oasis’ of non-built-up land in an otherwise heavily developed corner of Cyprus. Vegetation and flora: The site includes eight Annex I habitat types. The vegetation of the Mediterranean Sea cliffs (habitat type 1240) is well conserved while the rest of the habitat types have suffered degradation. The occurrence of Ziziphus lotus (habitat type 5220), although it does not form typical communities, is important as the westernmost distribution edge of the habitat type on the island. Faros Kato Pafou is the only site to host woodlands with Pistacia atlantica (habitat type 9320) in Cyprus. Also, within the site there are four plant taxa that have been included in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus: Anthemis tomentosa (Endangered), Enarthrocarpus arcuatus (Vulnerable) and the endemic taxa Papaver rhoeas subsp. cyprium (Vulnerable) and Taraxacum aphrogenes (Vulnerable). In addition, within the site another six endemic plant taxa have been observed (Biscutella didyma ssp. dunensis, Bosea cypria, Limonium albidum ssp. cyprius, Senecio glaucus ssp. cyprius, Teucrium micropodioides and T. divaricatum ssp. canescens).Furthermore, the status of the site as a protected archaeological area and World Heritage Site does not only offer long-term guarantees that it will not be built on but also a degree of protection from disturbance for migrant and wintering birds (though this protection does not extend to the shore area – see below).There are significant numbers of reptiles protected under Annex IV of the Habitats Directive using this site (see under 3.3). The caves within the site are known to be used by insectivorous bats, though details concerning species and populations are not available.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Annual Bird Reports 1970 to 2003. published by Cyprus Ornithological Societies (COS 1957 and COS 1970) and BirdLife Cyprus. Nicosia, Cyprus.Christodoulou S.Ch. 2000. Unpublished data. [3.3]Iezekiel, S, Makris, C & Antoniou, A. (2004) Importnant Bird Areas of European Union Importnace in Cyprus. Published by Birdife Cyprus.Meikle R.D. 1977, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vols 1 & 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Êew. p. 1969. [3.3]Snow, D.W. & Perrins .M. (1998) The Birds of the Western Palearctic, concise edition. Oxford university press.Tsintides T., Christodoulou C.S., Delipetrou P. & Georgiou K. (eds). 2007. The Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Lefkosia: Cyprus Forestry Association. ISBN 978-9963-9288-0-4. p. 468. [4.2]Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία.Χρυσοπολίτου Β. και Η. Ηλιάδης (συντονιστές έκδοσης). 2017. Τελική Έκθεση του Έργου «Επικαιροποίηση και Χαρτογράφηση των Τυποποιημένων Έντυπων Δεδομένων, και τη συμπλήρωση πρωτοκόλλων παρακολούθησης οικοτόπων των 17 Ειδικών Ζωνών Διατήρησης (ΕΖΔ) και δύο Προτεινόμενων Τόπων Κοινοτικής Σημασίας (πΤΚΣ) του Δικτύου Natura 2000». Ελληνικό Κέντρο Βιοτόπων Υγροτόπων και ATLANTIS Συμβουλευτική Κύπρου LTD. 27 σελ. + 5 Παραρτήματα


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
IBA, Kato Pafoas Lighthouse area=100.00
Tombs of the Kings, Kato Paphos*90.00
CY41Tombs of the Kings archaeological site*0.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
Other IBA, Kato Pafoas Lighthouse area=100.00
Tombs of the Kings, Kato Paphos*90.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Game and Fauna Services
Organisation:Department of Environment

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Faros Kato Pafou’

Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Φάρος Κάτω Πάφου’

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

The site is currently managed as an archaeological area for visitors, with provision of footpaths and development and housing of excavated sites. Habitat management is restricted to control of grazing, with numbers of goats and sheep having been reduced significantly in recent years with subsequent increase in adventive plant species. Some planting of exotic and native trees and bushes is ongoing.



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