Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2007-10
National legal reference of SPA designation No information provided


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA293Acrocephalus melanopogon           
BA247Alauda arvensis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA055Anas querquedula           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA257Anthus pratensis           
BA259Anthus spinoletta           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA028Ardea cinerea           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA222Asio flammeus           
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus    20  30   
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA145Calidris minuta           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus           
BA136Charadrius dubius           
BA196Chlidonias hybridus           
BA197Chlidonias niger           
BA031Ciconia ciconia           
BA080Circaetus gallicus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA082Circus cyaneus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA084Circus pygargus           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA026Egretta garzetta           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA098Falco columbarius           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA095Falco naumanni           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA097Falco vespertinus    500  2000   
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca           
BA442Ficedula semitorquata           
BA189Gelochelidon nilotica           
BA127Grus grus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus           
BA092Hieraaetus pennatus           
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA418Hoplopterus spinosus           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA183Larus fuscus           
BA180Larus genei           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA272Luscinia svecica           
BA242Melanocorypha calandra    10  20   
BA230Merops apiaster    2500  7500   
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA073Milvus migrans           
BA262Motacilla alba           
BA260Motacilla flava           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA094Pandion haliaetus           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii           
BA151Philomachus pugnax           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA032Plegadis falcinellus           
BA140Pluvialis apricaria           
BA121Porzana pusilla           
BA420Pterocles orientalis           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA166Tringa glareola           
BA165Tringa ochropus           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA142Vanellus vanellus           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

No information provided


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site EKBOLES POTAMON EZOUSAS, XEROU, KAI DIARIZOU consists of two separate parts of the narrow Paphos coastal plain. The first part of the site includes the lower reaches and mouth of the Ezousa river and an area of flat agricultural land to the West of this. The village of Akhelia is just north of the site and Paphos airport to the South.The second part of the site is about 5 km to the East of the first and includes the lower reaches and mouths of the Xeros and Diarizos rivers and areas of flat agricultural land between these two rivers and to the East of the Diarizos river. The site includes the small pools below Asprokremnos dam which is just to the North of the site) that are fed by outflow from the reservoir. The new Limassol to Paphos highway cuts through the northern portion of this site, while the village of Kouklia lies just north of the site. The village of Mandria lies between the two parts of the site.The flat beds of these three rivers which flow only irregularly during the drier months of the year – are dominated by reedy vegetation (including stands of Arundo donax and extensive areas dominated by Foeniculum vulgare and Tamarix spp) and phrygana with remnants of maquis. The rest of the two sites are dominated by relatively intensive farmland (citrus groves, cereals and market vegetables).

4.2 Quality and importance

The site EKBOLES POTAMON EZOUSAS, XEROU, KAI DIARIZOU is a very important migration site in Cyprus. It is particularly notable for attracting large concentrations of the Annex I raptor Falco vespertinus and also large concentrations of the non-Annex I migrant Merops apiaster. BirdLife International identified the whole of the Paphos plain area as an Important Bird Area (IBA) on the basis of the concentrations of these two migrants. It is estimated that between 1,100 and 2,000 F.vespertinus and between 15,000 and 25,000 M.apiaster pass through the Paphos plain each autumn (representing at least 1% of the European flyway for both species). Passage is not as heavy in the spring, but is still significant. Though the PEDIADA PAFOU – EKVOLES POTAMON sites do not cover the entire Paphos plain IBA, it takes in the most important portions of the area (covering the more natural vegetation within the three river beds crossing the area, extensive areas of farmland adjacent to these and the pools below the Asprokremnos Dam, while leaving out more built-up areas such as those around Mandria village). In total, some 65 migratory species occur regularly at the sites (42 of these listed in Annex I). An additional two Annex I migrants occur more rarely at the site. The sites are also important for wintering migrant birds: 22 species occur regularly during winter months (10 of these are listed in Annex I). PEDIADA PAFOU – EKVOLES POTAMON is particularly important for Annex I members of the heron family on migration: Nycticorac nycticorax, Ardeola ralloides, Egretta garzetta and Ardea purpurea. Farmland within the sites also regularly attracts Ciconia ciconia when the species makes its eruptive appearances in Cyprus. PEDIADA PAFOU – EKVOLES POTAMON also attracts great numbers of chats (Saxicola rubetra and S.torquata) wheatears (Oenanthe hispanica, O.oenanthe and O. isabellina), larks (Alauda arvensis and Lullula arborea), wagtails (Motacilla flava and M. alba), pipits (Anthis pratensis, A.campestris, A.spinoletta and A. cervinus), warblers (Sylvia ruepelli, Phylloscopus trochilus and P.collybita), flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca, F.albicollis and uscicapa striata) shrikes (Lanius collurio, L.nubicus and L.minor) and buntings (Emberiza hortulana, E.caesia and Milaria calandra) on migration or during the winter, or both.Five Annex I species, including both Cyprus endemics, breed regularly at this site: Oenanthe cypriaca, Sylvia melanothorax, Burhinus oedicnemus, Melanocorypha calandra and Phalacrocorax aristoteles desmarestii. PEDIADA PAFOU – EKVOLES POTAMON represents one of the best areas for breeding M.calandra and B.oedicnemus in southern Cyprus. The sites are also strongholds for breeding Francolinus francolinus, a game bird whose distribution within the EU is limited to Cyprus.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou). Annual Reports, 1997 - 2007.David A. Bannerman & W. Mary Bannerman. ‘Birds of Cyprus’. 1958. Printed by Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh., 385 pp.David J. Whaley and J. C. Dawes. 2003. Cyprus Breeding Birds Atlas. Cyprus., 40pp.Game Fund Service, unpublished data on ornithology and counts in Cyprus. 1999 – 2007.Hellicar, M. 2004, ‘Poulia kai georgia stin Kipro’, Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 24 pp. ‘(Birds and Agriculture in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).Kassinis N. 2007. Waterbird monitoring in Cyprus. 17th International Conference of the European Bird Census Council, Bird Numbers 2007 – ‘Monitoring for Conservation and Management’, 17-22 April 2007, Chiavenna, Italy.Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299.Panayides P. 2005. ‘Sisxetismos kai ensomatosi ton simperasmaton tis diaskepsis pou egine sto Bergen-Op-Zoom (25 Xronia tis Odigias gia ta Agria Ptina (Odigia 79/409/EEC) me ton xorotaksiko sxediasmo tis ipaithrou’. Tameio Thiras, Ipourgeio Esoterikon. 27pp. (Report for the adoption and integration of the Conclusions of the Bergen-Op-Zoom Meeting (25 Years of the Birds Directive – 79/409/EEC) with Cyprus countryside planning, Game Fund - Ministry of the Interior).Panayides, P. 2005. Six aspects of land use and development activity that result in adverse effects to Cypriot wildlife resources. In Proceedings of the XXVth International Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists – IUGB and the IXth International Symposium Perdix, Vol. II, November 2005, 182-196.Peter Flint & Peter Stewart. ‘The Birds of Cyprus’, British Ornithologists’ Union, (Second Edition), 1992. ISBN 090 744 61 40., 234 pp.Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.Zotos S. 2006. ‘Simantikes Perioches gia ta poulia tis Kiprou’. Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 132 pp. (Important Bird Areas in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Game and Fauna Services
Organisation:Department of Environment

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Εκβολές Ποταμών Έζουσας, Ξερού και Διαρίζου’

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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