Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2008-04
National legal reference of SPA designation No data


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA085Accipiter gentilis           
BA085Accipiter gentilis           
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus           
BA229Alcedo atthis           
BA056Anas clypeata           
BA050Anas penelope           
BA055Anas querquedula           
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA258Anthus cervinus           
BA256Anthus trivialis           
BA226Apus apus           
BA029Ardea purpurea           
BA024Ardeola ralloides           
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA365Carduelis spinus           
BA081Circus aeruginosus           
BA083Circus macrourus           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA231Coracias garrulus           
BA113Coturnix coturnix           
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA253Delichon urbica           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA382Emberiza melanocephala           
BA103Falco peregrinus     
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA099Falco subbuteo           
BA097Falco vespertinus           
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus     
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA022Ixobrychus minutus           
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA433Lanius nubicus           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA177Larus minutus               
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA073Milvus migrans           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca           
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA214Otus scops           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA275Saxicola rubetra           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax           
BA307Sylvia nisoria           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA286Turdus iliacus           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA284Turdus pilaris           
BA287Turdus viscivorus           
BA213Tyto alba           
BA232Upupa epops           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A411Alectoris chukar                   
A218Athene noctua                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site is part of the watershed of river Ezousa, one of the main running water bodies of Cyprus. The site corresponds towards the north part of the SPA site Koilada Ezousas (CY 4000021) and in this way includes much of the watershed of the valley.The climate of the site is dry temperate with a rainfall of 400-600 mm and mean minimum temperature of the coldest month 3-6 °C. A significant part of the area is covered by pine forest (Pinus brutia, 9540) and mixed woodland. A larger part is covered by sclerophyllous Quercus coccifera scrub used for grazing. Pistacia terebinthus, Crataegus azarolus, Styrax officinalis and also Ptilostemon chamaepeuce also participate in this habitat. Hydrophilous riparian vegetation also flanks the river all along. Important habitat types are oriental plane forests with Platanus orientalis and Alnus orientalis (92C0), galleries of Salix alba (92A0), Nerium oleander and Tamarix smyrnensis galleries (92D0).The phryganic vegetation (5420) that develops in the area is characterised by the species Sarcopoterium spinosum, Thymus capitatus etc. Several open sites are covered by xerophytic grasses and annuals (6220), mainly Hyparrhenia hirta with other Gramineae and a few orchids. Finally, part of the area is occupied by vineyards and citrus orchards.Toward the north part of the site next to Choulou village there are important stands of cliffs particularly important for the birds of prey.

4.2 Quality and importance

This site combines a variety of riparian and fresh water aquatic habitats as well as a site with important cliffs towards the north part, and is essentially a continuation of the site Koilada Ezousas (CY 4 0000021). Large number of birds use the area and the site is an important habitat for the birds of prey, particularly for the birds of prey but also a variety of bird species as it combines mixed habitats. It supports 2 pairs of Buteo rufinus, 1 pair of Falco peregrinus while the Bonelli’s eagle is hunting in the area. The extensive, steep cliffs toward the north provide good habitat characteristics for birds of prey. Gyps fulvus is often recorded on the site. Coracias garullus breed in good densities on the site, due to several good nesting cliff sites. Other important Annex I species breeding on the site are the endemic Sylvia melanothorax, Caprimulgus europaeus. Falco vespertinus use regularly the area as well as large numbers of Merops apiaster.This is one of the best Francolinus francolinus habitats island wide and one of the species’ strongholds. Columba palumbus also breed in very high densities in the extensive Alnus orientalis galleries along the river bottom. It is a highly undisturbed site from anthropogenic causes. The site has also been designated by the Game Fund as one of the important migrating bird corridors.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou). Annual Reports, 1997 - 2007.David A. Bannerman & W. Mary Bannerman. ‘Birds of Cyprus’. 1958. Printed by Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh., 385 pp.David J. Whaley and J. C. Dawes. 2003. Cyprus Breeding Birds Atlas. Cyprus., 40pp.Game Fund Service, unpublished data on ornithology and counts in Cyprus. 1999 – 2007.Hellicar, M. 2004, ‘Poulia kai georgia stin Kipro’, Ptinologikos Sindesmos Kiprou. 24 pp. ‘(Birds and Agriculture in Cyprus. Birdlife Cyprus publication).Kassinis N. 2007. Long-legged Buzzard breeding distribution and abundance in Cyprus. 17th International Conference of the European Bird Census Council, Bird Numbers 2007 – ‘Monitoring for Conservation and Management’, 17-22 April 2007, Chiavenna, Italy.Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299.Panayides P. 2005. ‘Sisxetismos kai ensomatosi ton simperasmaton tis diaskepsis pou egine sto Bergen-Op-Zoom (25 Xronia tis Odigias gia ta Agria Ptina (Odigia 79/409/EEC) me ton xorotaksiko sxediasmo tis ipaithrou’. Tameio Thiras, Ipourgeio Esoterikon. 27pp. (Report for the adoption and integration of the Conclusions of the Bergen-Op-Zoom Meeting (25 Years of the Birds Directive – 79/409/EEC) with Cyprus countryside planning, Game Fund - Ministry of the Interior).Panayides, P. 2005. Six aspects of land use and development activity that result in adverse effects to Cypriot wildlife resources. In Proceedings of the XXVth International Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists – IUGB and the IXth International Symposium Perdix, Vol. II, November 2005, 182-196.Peter Flint & Peter Stewart. ‘The Birds of Cyprus’, British Ornithologists’ Union, (Second Edition), 1992. ISBN 090 744 61 40., 234 pp.Tameio Thiras. 2006 ‘Xartis perasmaton dieleusis apodimitikon ptinon apo tin Kipro.’ Ipourgeio Esoterikon. (Map of bird migrating corridors in Cyprus. Game Fund, Ministry of the Interior).IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία.


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Game and Fauna Services
Organisation:Department of Environment

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Γκρεμνοί Έζουσας’

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Management proposals have been made by a Life-Third Countries Project: "The River Valley Project, Cyprus (LIFE99 TCY/CY111)" .



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