Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas Hadjipanayiotou Director Department of Environment

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

No information provided


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
5330  info      37.841  0.00     
8210  info      0.366  0.00     
9290  info      0.079  0.00     
92A0  info      2.819  0.00     
92C0  info      0.438  0.00     
9320  info      57.278  0.00     
9540  info      1.358  0.00     
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA514Anthropoides virgo         
BA087Buteo buteo           
BA087Buteo buteo         
BA403Buteo rufinus           
BA403Buteo rufinus       
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus         
BA082Circus cyaneus         
BA082Circus cyaneus         
BA083Circus macrourus         
BA084Circus pygargus         
BA231Coracias garrulus         
BA212Cuculus canorus         
BA095Falco naumanni         
BA103Falco peregrinus         
BA097Falco vespertinus         
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca         
BA359Fringilla coelebs           
BA127Grus grus         
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus     
BA299Hippolais icterina           
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA438Hippolais pallida    50  65   
BA233Jynx torquilla                       
BA338Lanius collurio           
BA339Lanius minor           
BA341Lanius senator           
BA230Merops apiaster           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA383Miliaria calandra           
BA073Milvus migrans         
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca    25  45   
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA072Pernis apivorus         
P2209Phlomis brevibracteata    450  550 
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
BA276Saxicola torquata           
BA155Scolopax rusticola           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax         
BA333Tichodroma muraria           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Acanthoprasium integrifolium                 
Allium willeanum                 
Anthemis tricolor                 
Asperula cypria                 
Gladiolus triphyllus                 
Hypericum repens                 
Lomelosia cypria                 
Odontites cyprius                 
Onobrychis venosa                 
Onopordum cyprium                 
Onosma fruticosa                 
Ptilistemon chamaepeuce subsp. cyprius                 
Rubia laure                 
Teucrium divaricatum subsp. canescense                 
Teucrium micropoioides                 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site Kokkinokremmos is located northwest of Lemesos town (about 20 km) and extends along Shabanis river (the upper part of Paramali river), which is a deep river with precipitous sides, consisting of marly-chalks (Pachna Formation). Almost 95% of the site is covered by Mediterranean shrub formations (habitat types 9320 and 5330). Sclerophyllous maquis (habitat type 9320) and Genista fasselata scrub (habitat type 5330) dominate on the steep slopes. Habitat type 9320 is characterized by Pistacia lentiscus, Olea europaea, Rhamnus lycioides subsp. graeca, Ceratonia siliqua, Rhamnus alaternus, Quercus coccifera subsp. calliprinos (especially near the riverbed), Prasium majus, Myrtus communis and Acanthoprasium integrifolium. Salix alba galleries (habitat type 92A0) and Platanus orientalis woods (habitat type 92C0) occur along the riverbed, while small stands of Pinus brutia (habitat type 9540) and a single patch of Cupressus sempervirens (habitat type 9540) are scatted in the site. Chasmophytic vegetation (8210) with Ptilostemon camaepeuce subsp. cyprium, Capparis spinosa and Asplenium ceterach colonise the hard, calcareous cliffs.

4.2 Quality and importance

The most important elements of the ecological value and importance of the site are: (1) The presence of seven Annex I habitat types, especially the sclerophyllous maquis which are of very good quality and provide nesting and feeding habitat for many bird and other animal species; (2) the presence of Phlomis brevibracteata (Annex II) and 39 bird species (Annex I Birds Directive); (3) the flora of the area, which includes 15 endemic species and subspecies (motivation B) and one near-endemic (motivation D).

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Department of Forests. 2019-2021. Unpublished data on the flora and vegetation of Kokkinokremmos area. Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment. [3.1, 3.2, 3.3]Department of Forests. 2018-2021. Unpublished data on the avifauna of the area. Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment. [3.2]Meikle R.D. 1977. Flora of Cyprus. Vol. 1. London: Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [3.3] Meikle R.D. 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vol. 2. London: Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [3.3]David J. Whaley and J. C. Dawes. 2003. Cyprus Breeding Birds Atlas. Cyprus. [3.2]Kassinis N. 2007. Long-legged Buzzard breeding distribution and abundance in Cyprus. 17th International Conference of the European Bird Census Council, Bird Numbers 2007 Monitoring for Conservation and Management, 17-22 April 2007, Chiavenna, Italy. [3.2]Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. [3.2]Game Fund. 2006. Map of bird migrating corridors in Cyprus. Game Fund, Ministry of the Interior. (in Greek). [3.2]IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία. [3.2]Δεληπέτρου Π., Χριστοδούλου Χ.Σ. 2016. Οδηγός αναγνώρισης και χαρτογράφησης των οικοτόπων του Παραρτήματος I της Οδηγίας 92/43/ΕΟΚ στην Κύπρο. Τμήμα Περιβάλλοντος, Υπουργείο Γεωργίας, Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης και Περιβάλλοντος, Λευκωσία, Κύπρος. [3.1 & 4.1]


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]

5.3 Site designation (optional)

Permanent Game Reserve


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)