Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

C

1.2 Site code

CY5000004

1.3 Site name

ETHNIKO DASIKO PARKO TROODOUS

1.4 First Compilation date

1999-09

1.5 Update date

2019-02

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Costas HadjipanayiotouDirectorDepartment of Environment
Address:               
Email:director@environment.moa.gov.cy

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2005-12
National legal reference of SPA designation No data
Date site proposed as SCI:2004-05
Date site confirmed as SCI:2008-03
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:32.866700
Latitude:34.933300

2.2 Area [ha]

9008.7900

2.3 Marine area [%]

0.0000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

81.87

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
CY00Kypros / Kıbrıs

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (100.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
5210  info      6.323  0.00 
5330  info      0.439  0.00 
5420  info      140.869  0.00 
62B0  info  X     20.933  0.00 
6460  info      3.677  0.00 
8140  info      0.25  0.00 
92C0  info      61.307  0.00 
9390  info      416.539  0.00 
9530  info  X     3221.2  0.00 
9540  info      4371.08  0.00 
9560  info  X     197.614  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA402Accipiter brevipes           
BA085Accipiter gentilis                       
BA086Accipiter nisus           
BA226Apus apus           
BA227Apus pallidus           
BA404Aquila heliaca           
P2103Arabis kennedyae           
I1078Callimorpha quadripunctaria         
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus           
BA368Carduelis flammea           
BA365Carduelis spinus                       
BA469Certhia brachydactyla dorotheae           
P2283Chionodoxa lochiae    101  500   
BA211Clamator glandarius           
BA373Coccothraustes coccothraustes           
R2447Coluber cypriensis           
P2306Crocus cyprius    8000  10000 
P2307Crocus hartmannianus    40  140 
BA212Cuculus canorus           
BA447Emberiza caesia           
BA269Erithacus rubecula           
BA100Falco eleonorae           
BA103Falco peregrinus           
BA321Ficedula albicollis           
BA359Fringilla coelebs                       
BA360Fringilla montifringilla           
BA360Fringilla montifringilla           
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus   
BA438Hippolais pallida           
BA252Hirundo daurica           
BA251Hirundo rustica           
BA233Jynx torquilla           
BA433Lanius nubicus    400  900 
BA246Lullula arborea    100  300 
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos           
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii    3000  4000 
BA280Monticola saxatilis           
BA281Monticola solitarius           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
BA319Muscicapa striata           
M1307Myotis blythii     
M1321Myotis emarginatus                   
M1312Nyctalus noctula                   
BA467Oenanthe cypriaca    750  2000 
BA278Oenanthe hispanica           
BA435Oenanthe isabellina           
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe           
BA337Oriolus oriolus           
M4005Ovis orientalis ophion    100  200   
BA470Parus ater cypriotes    4000  7000 
BA355Passer hispaniolensis           
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros           
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA315Phylloscopus collybita           
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix           
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus           
P2227Pinguicula crystallina           
M1329Plecotus austriacus                   
I4023Propomacrus cypriacus                   
BA266Prunella modularis           
BA317Regulus regulus           
M1306Rhinolophus blasii                   
M1305Rhinolophus euryale         
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum    45  65 
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros         
BA210Streptopelia turtur           
BA311Sylvia atricapilla           
BA310Sylvia borin           
BA309Sylvia communis           
BA308Sylvia curruca           
BA306Sylvia hortensis           
BA468Sylvia melanothorax    400  500 
BA307Sylvia nisoria           
BA440Sylvia rueppelli           
BA286Turdus iliacus           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA283Turdus merula           
BA285Turdus philomelos           
BA284Turdus pilaris           
BA282Turdus torquatus           
BA287Turdus viscivorus           
BA232Upupa epops           
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A411Alectoris chukar                   
Aporia crataegi                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
Calosoma sycophanta                   
A366Carduelis cannabina                   
A364Carduelis carduelis                   
A363Carduelis chloris                   
Cephalanthera rubra                   
1280Coluber jugularis                   
1285Coluber nummifer                   
A206Columba livia                   
A208Columba palumbus                   
A350Corvus corax                   
1228Cyrtopodion kotschyi                   
Epipactis condensata                   
Epipactis helleborine                   
1327Eptesicus serotinus                 
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
5365Hypsugo savii    grids1x1         
Limodorum abortivum                   
2466Malpolon monspessulanus                   
1322Myotis nattereri                 
1322Myotis nattereri      20         
Neotinea maculata                   
1328Nyctalus lasiopterus                 
1331Nyctalus leisleri                 
2204Onosma troodi                   
Orchis sancta                   
A330Parus major                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                 
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus    grids5x5         
5009Pipistrellus pygmaeus                 
1311Pipistrellus savii                 
Platanthera chlorantha                   
5011Plecotus kolombatovici    50  100         
Pontia chloridice                   
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris                   
1212Rana ridibunda                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A303Sylvia conspicillata                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                 
A265Troglodytes troglodytes                   
2010Vipera lebetina                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N060.03
N070.04
N081.64
N090.23
N150.11
N160.68
N1786.47
N184.62
N222.66
N233.52
N060.03
N070.04
N081.64
N090.23
N150.11
N160.68
N1786.47
N184.62
N222.66
N233.52

Total Habitat Cover

200

Other Site Characteristics

The National Forest Park of Troodos (NFP of Troodos) is located at the centre of Troodos massif that ranges from the northwest to the southeast part of Cyprus. The NFP of Troodos covers an area of about 9,009 ha (excluding Kardama and Moni forests with an area of 308 ha, which are not connected to the main body of the NFP), that is 0.97 % of Cyprus. The lowest part of NFP of Troodos with an altitude of 700 m is close to its southeast end (Saitas area) and the highest is Chionistra peak at 1951 m.Geology: The NFP of Troodos, situated almost at the centre of the Troodos Ophiolite Complex, consists of plutonic rocks, which emerged from the ocean as a result of tectonic activity c. 10.000.000 years ago and is characterised by smooth slopes and rounded peaks. This plutonic sequence of rocks is exposed along the roads Troodos-Prodromos, Troodos-Platres, Platres-Troodos and around the chromite mine. It consists of plagiogranite, gabbro, wehrlite, pyroxenite and dunite. Harzburgite (tectonised and serpentinised) is exposed at the highest peak and its surrounding area and also at the area of the Amiantos mine. The ophiolite of Troodos is one of the best developed ophiolites and has influenced the ideas concerning the formation of oceanic crust and upper mantle of the earth to a considerable extent.Climate:Precipitation at the NFP of Troodos ranges from 750 mm at the lower parts and exceeds 1000 mm at its peak. The first snowfall usually occurs at the beginning of December and the last at the middle of April; snow cover lasts for several weeks during the coldest months. The mean daily maximum temperature of the hottest month (July) is 24.5 °C, the mean daily minimum is 15.3 °C and the mean daily is 19.9 °C. The mean daily maximum temperature of the coldest month (February) is 3.7 °C, the mean daily minimum is -2.6 °C and the mean daily is 0.5 °C.Vegetation:The area of the NFP of Troodos is dominated by forest ecosystems of Pinus brutia, Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, Juniperus foetidissima and Quercus alnifolia in pure or mixed formations.The Pinus brutia forest (Habitat type: 9540), the Aegean pine zone, starts at the coast (out of the site) and continues through the NFP of Troodos from its lower parts up to c. 1400 m, depending on the aspect (higher at south facing slopes and lower at north facing). The shrub understorey consists of Quercus alnifolia, Arbutus andrachne, Pistacia terebinthus, Styrax officinalis, Genista fasselata etc.At altitudes of 1200 to 1500 m, depending on the aspect, Pinus brutia forms mixed stands with P. nigra ssp. pallasiana (9536a). The understorey vegetation of this zone is similar to the above with the addition of Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosa chionistrae, Rosa canina and Berberis cretica. Juniperus foetidissima also occurs in this zone, however without forming stands (with few isolated exceptions).The Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana forest (Habitat type: 9530), the black pine zone, starts at about 1400 m (depending on the aspect, higher at south facing slopes and lower at north facing) and reaches up to the top (1951 m). The understorey consists of Quercus alnifolia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus foetidissima, Sorbus aria ssp. cretica, Berberis cretica, Arbutus andrachne, Rosa chionistrae, Rosa canina, Cotoneaster nummularius etc.Forest stands with Juniperus foetidissima (Habitat type: 9560) are mainly restricted to the central part around Chionistra, from about 1300 m up to the highest peak. On rocky, poor slopes the stands are usually open whereas on better sites there are relatively dense stands. Juniperus foetidissima occurs in pure or mixed stands with Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Habitat type: 9530) and Quercus alnifolia (Habitat type: 9390). The understorey vegetation is usually composed of Alyssum troodi, Besrberis cretica, Sorbus aria ssp. cretica, Hypericum confertum ssp. stenobotrys and Thlaspi cyprium (=Noccaea cypria). Also, at the southeast part of Troodos NFP, Juniperus oxycedrus forms a forest stand of 4 to 8 m high (Habitat type 9560) mixed with Pinus brutia (9540).Matorral formations with Juniperus foetidissima and J. oxycedrus (Habitat type 5210) are restricted at a few places. J. oxycedrus occurs in only in a mixed stand with Pinus brutia; however, the species is commonly found in the understory vegetation of the pine forests.Riparian forests occur from the lower parts of Troodos NFP up to an altitude of 1600 m, and consist of Alnus orientalis and Platanus orientalis (Habitat type: 92C0); Laurus nobilis, Salix alba and Nerium oleander are sometimes present.Quercus alnifolia occurs mainly in mixture with Pinus brutia but it is also found in pure stands (Habitat type 9390), reaching its highest limit of distribution at about 1750 m.Serpentinophilous grasslands of Cyprus (Habitat type 62B0) are distributed at the highest parts of the site, that is the area occupied by the serpentine rocks (serpentinised Harzburgite) and occur at large openings of the black pine forest in the form of small, scattered patches. The characteristic species are Acinos troodi, Onosma troodi, Cynoglossum troodi and Alyssum troodi, which are all local endemics to the NFP of Troods; other species participating to this habitat type are Lindbergella sintenisii, Scariola terantha, Astragalus echinus ssp. chionistrae, Sedum microstachyum, Scutellaria cypria var. cypria, Cerastium fragillimum etc. Due to the small size and distribution pattern of this habitat type mapping is only indicative of its distribution.Genista fasselata scrub (Habitat type 5330) composed of Genista fasselata ssp. crudelis, a local endemic to the area, is an endemic plant community of the N.F.P. of Troodos and occurs in the form of small patches on rocky mountain-slopes or sometimes at open pine forest. Apart from these communities, G. fasselata ssp. crudelis often participates in the understorey of pine forest.Screes with Vincetoxicum canescens, Lindbergella sintenisi, Saponaria cypria and Cleome ornithopodioides (Habitat type 8140) are confined at two places only.Cistus phrygana (Habitat type 5420), which is the result of a former fire in Quercus alnifolia scrub (Habitat type 9390), occurs in a small area.The chasmophytic vegetation of water-sprayed or water flushed rocks (Adiantetea, Habitat type CY03) is represented by the Adiantum capillus-veneris communities and by the rare Pinguicula crystallina ssp. crystallina communities. The latter special type of vegetation is also characterised by Solenopsis minuta ssp. nobilis, Samolus valerandi and the companion species Schoenus nigricans and occurs at a few places on wet rock surfaces and by streamside.Peat grasslands (Habitat type 6460) are confined to the area of Almyrolivado and Pashia Livadi picnic sites on a seasonally inundated plain. The characteristic species are Calamagrostis epigejeos, Juncus littoralis, Poa pratensis, Polypogon semiverticillatus, Schoenus nigrigans, Carex spp. And some endemic species, occurring at high altitude, like Brachypodium firmifolium, Taraxacum holmboei, Crocus cypriusThere are also naked areas, those of Asbestos mine (Amiantos), and the eroded sites of Alas, Chromio and Kremmos tis Keramis where the nature of the substrate in combination with the large slope inclinations cause intense erosion phenomena and render these sites inaccessible to any kind of natural regeneration.

4.2 Quality and importance

Troodos N.F.P. hosts not only the largest number of plants, compared to any other area of Cyprus, but also the largest number of endemic plants. Moreover, it has been designated as one of the 13 "Plant Diversity Hot Spots" in the Mediterranean.The ecological quality and importance of the site is composed by the following elements:1. The variety of habitat types and their good-excellent conservation status. Pallas’ pine forests (priority habitat) are extended only on Troodos in Cyprus while the stinking juniper (Juniperus foetidissima) woods (priority habitat) are confined to this area. Another two priority habitat types accepted as new additions to Annex I, serpentinophilous grasslands of Cyprus and scrub and low forest vegetation with Quercus alnifolia occur in the site as well. Especially serpentinophilous grasslands are very well represented with local endemic species (Acinos troodi, Cynoglossum troodi, Onosma troodi etc.) to the Troodos N.F.P. Furthermore peat grasslands are unique at the high altitudes of Troodos in Cyprus. Also, the water-flushed chasmophytic communities of Pinguicula crystallina ssp. crystallina, a new addition to Annex II as a priority species, have their main distribution area within the site. 2. The N.F.P. of Troodos has a very rich flora; up to now 40 % (786 taxa) of the total flora of Cyprus and 51.43 % (69 taxa at species and subspecies level, 72 taxa including varieties) of the endemics have been recorded from the site; moreover 8.57 % (12 taxa) of the endemic plants of the island are local endemics to the site. These are the highest proportions recorded up to now, on the island, for an area representing only c. 1 % of Cyprus. Also the Troodos Region, with about 230 lichen taxa is one of the two parts of the island with the highest number of known species.3. Five plant species accepted as new additions to Annex II, three of which are priority ones, occur in the Troodos N.F.P. The local endemics of Troodos (Acinos troodi, Alyssum troodi, Astragalus echinus ssp. chionistrae, Brachypodium firmifolium, Cynoglossum troodi, Euphorbia cassia ssp. rigoi, Genista fasselata ssp. crudelis, Minuartia subtilis ssp. filicaulis, Salvia willeana, Scariola tetrantha, Sedum microstachyum and Taraxacum holmboei) are restricted on serpentine substrates or at altitudes over 1650 m. The largest populations of several endemic plants (Crocus cyprius, Chionodoxa lochiae, Ranunculus cadmicus var. cyprius, Saponaria cypria, Thlaspi cyprium, Allium paniculatum ssp. exaltatum and Allium cyprium) occur within the limits of the site while other smaller populations are found at other, mainly neighboring areas, at altitudes always over 1100 m. In addition, 54 non-endemic taxa are restricted within the limits of the NPF of Troodos in Cyprus.Finally, the site hosts 6 of the 22 strictly protected plant taxa (Annex I of the Bern Convention, Council of Europe 1992) as well as 21 threatened taxa (IUCN list, WCMC 1999).4. The fauna of the NFP of Troodos, closely associated with the variety of its flora and habitats, is particularly rich in total numbers as well as in rare species. It supports the sole population of Loxia curvirostra quillemardi in Cyprus and also very good populations of the endemic species, accepted as new additions to Annex I Dir. 79/409/EEC, Oenanthe cypriaca, Certhia brachydactyla dorotheae, Parus ater cypriotes and Sylvia melanothorax. It is the area hosting the largest populations of Turdus torquatus that are wintering in Cyprus and the most important breeding area for Monticola solitarius. It is also one of two breeding areas for Turdus merula in Cyprus. Moreover Troodos N.F.P. is the wintering place for many species such as Turdus viscivorus, Turdus pillaris, Turdus philomelos etc. Due to the presence of aged Pinus nigra trees (with tree holes), the site provides abundant nesting places for the endemic Otus scops cyprius and Certhia brachydactyla dorotheae as well as for other bird species such as Upupa epops. Troodos N.F.P. is also one of the two areas found in Cyprus used by Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) for drinking water. It must be mentioned that Aquila heliaca was once found as a rare migratory bird on Troodos range but its has not been observed during the last decade. Finallly, several other species of protected birds, such as the raptors Hieraetus fasciatus, Falco eleonora, Falco peregrinus, use the site.The fruit bat Rousettus aegypticus, accepted as new addition to Annex II, occurs within the site as well. The site also hosts at least another 7 bat species (2 of which are listed on Annex II 92/43/EEC) at quite large populations since it includes places that favour their establishment such as caves in old mines, traditional houses and trees with holes.The site also offers habitat to three endemic mammals (Hemiechinus auritus dorotheae, Lepus europaeus cyprius, Vulpes vulpes indutus).The endemic reptile Coluber cypriensis, accepted as new addition to Annex II, and other five endemic reptiles (Ablepharus kitaibelli budaki, Cyrtodactylus kotschyi fitzingeri, Lacerta laevis troodica, Ophisops elegans schlueteri, Telescopus fallax cyprianus) are also found in the site. Another 7 reptiles and 2 amphibians (Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda) also live in the site.Small populations of Callimorpha quadripunctaria (=C. quadripunctata) (listed on Annex II) are found within the site. Additionally 89% (8 out of 9) of the endemic butterflies of Cyprus occur in the site. Besides, 104 endemic insects and 3 endemic landsnails have been recorded up to now (listed on section 3.4).5. The relief and the topography of Troodos massif are the main regulators of the climatic conditions of Cyprus, in particular of the rainfall, and consequently of the water resources, both surface and groundwater, a fact also influencing the island flora and fauna.6. The geological characteristics of Troodos are of special importance. The Troodos Range or The Troodos Ophiolite Complex occupies the central and southcentral part of Cyprus and covers an area of around 32.000 square kilometers. Its highest point is Mount Olympous at 1952 m (the highest peak of Troodos NFP). It forms the core or foundation upon which the island of Cyprus is built. It is one of the best developed ophiolites in the world and has influenced to a considerable extent the ideas concerning the formation of oceanic crust and upper mantle of the earth. Therefore, the geology of the NFP of Troodos has a great scientific and educational value.7. The NFP of Troodos is considered as the most important mountain resort providing many facilities, some of which (i.e., skiing) unique to the area, for public recreation. Troodos NFP is surrounded by Prodromos, Pedoulas, Kakopetria, Amiantos and Platres villages. At the periphery of the site there are two monasteries Trooditissa and Trikoukkia and the church of Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis, which has been designated as a World Heritage Site (Painted Churches on the Troodos Region).Other Important Species with Motivation D (section 3.3):Corvus corax used to be common in Cyprus but today it should be considered threatened since few pairs have remained on the island. Columba palumbus is a game species whose populations are apparently decreasing and its hunting is under periodic ban (during breeding season).In total 65 endemic plants (motivation B), 14 plants with motivation C and 11 with motivation D are listed in sections 3.3 Other Important species and 3.4 Cyprian Important species. Allium paniculatim ssp. exaltatum is probably endemic to Cyprus. Glaucosciadium cordifolium (Glaucosciadium is a monotypic genus) is a subenedmic species occuring only in Cyprus and Turkey. Several of the plant taxa are included in the list of rare and threatened species of IUCN-WCMC (1999) under the threatened status categories. Acinos exiguus, Acinos troodi, Euphorbia veneris, Nepeta troodi, Onosma troodi, Salvia willeana, Saponaria cypria, Scabiosa cyprica, Sedum cyprium, Sedum microstachyum and Taraxacum holmboei are characterised as "Rare"; Allium autumnale and Állium willeanum are characterised as "Indeterminate"; Cynoglossum troodi, Epipactis troodi, Jurinea cypria and Scariola tetrantha (=Lactuca tetrantha) are characterised as "Vulnerable". All the other plants with motivation D (Alyssum cypricum, Campanula podocarpa, Cleome iberica, Cynoglossum montanum ssp. extraeuropaeum, Galium recurvum, Herniaria micrantha, Hypericum confertum ssp. stenobotrys, Myosotis pusilla, Saponaria orientalis, Veronica ixodes, Vincetoxicum canescens) are taxa, which in Cyprus occur exclusively (or almost so) within the limits of the NFP of Troodos and in most cases their general distribution is mainly restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jurinea cypria is a vulnerable species (IUCN) occuring only in Cyprus and Turkey.Insects:Caliaeschna microstigma, Libythea celtis are rare taxa (isolated and local to restricted geographic areas or biotopes) and at the margins of their area of distribution. Camptogramma bilineatum bohatschi is an important (determinative for ecosystem balance) threatened taxon (Koomen & van Helsdinger, 1996; Collins & Wells 1987) listed on the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants and on the CORINE (1991) threatened species list. Aporia crataegi is a rare taxon (isolated and local to restricted geographic areas or biotopes). Freyeria trochylus is a threatened taxon according to Heath (1981). Epallage fatime is a threatened taxon according to Van Tol & Verdonk (1988) and in Cyprus they are at the margins of their area of distribution. Empusa fasciata is an important (Koomen & van Helsdinger, 1996) threatened taxon listed on the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and Plants. Pontia chloridice is an important threatened taxon according to Heath (1981) and Koomen & van Helsdinger (1996) and also listed on the CORINE (1991) threatened species list. Stenosis sulcata, Uloma cyprea are subendemic taxa (endemic to Cyprus and neighbouring countries).Notes: The snake Macrovipera lebetina lebetina is included in section 3.3 as Vipera lebetina.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
LBi
MB01i
LB01b
LB02.02i
HC01.04.01i
HC02i
MD01.01i
HD01.01b
LD01.02i
MD01.02b
LD02.01i
LD05i
ME01.01b
ME02.03b
MF03.01b
HF03.01i
HF03.02i
LF03.02.01i
HF03.02.02i
MF03.02.03i
HF03.02.03b
MF04b
LG01.02i
MG01.03b
LG02i
MG02.02i
MG02.06i
MG02.08i
HG04.01i
MG05i
HG05.01i
LJ01b
HJ01.01b
MJ02i
MK01.01i
MLi
LL09b
LBi
MB01i
LB01b
LB02.02i
HC01.04.01i
HC02i
MD01.01i
HD01.01b
LD01.02i
MD01.02b
LD02.01i
LD05i
ME01.01b
ME02.03b
MF03.01b
HF03.01i
HF03.02i
LF03.02.01i
HF03.02.02i
MF03.02.03i
HF03.02.03b
MF04b
LG01.02i
MG01.03b
LG02i
MG02.02i
MG02.06i
MG02.08i
HG04.01i
MG05i
HG05.01i
LJ01b
HJ01.01b
MJ02i
MK01.01i
MLi
LL09b
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
LBb
LB01b
LBb
LB01b

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Ahola M. 1998. Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) from Cyprus with descriptions of larvae of some species. Entomologica Fennica. 9: 19-36. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alexis R. & Delpont M. 1999. Cetonischema speciosa marchei, sous-espece endemique de Chypre. (Coleoptera Cetoniidae). Lambillionea. XCIL: 389-392. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alexis R. 1994. Nouvelle espece du genre Cetonia de l' ile de Chypre (Coleoptera Cetoniinae. Lambillionea 94: 469-474. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alexis R. 1994. Potosia cuprea ikonomowi MIKSIC 1958 sous-espece meconnue endemique de Chypre (Coleoptera Cetoniinae. Lambillionea 94: 201-205. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alexis R. 2000. Personal communication. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alziar G. 1995. Contribution a l' histoire naturell de l' ile de Chypre. Coleoptera: Curculionidae I. Biocosme mesogeen 12: 65-82. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Alziar G. 1995. Personal communication. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Andreou M., Mazaraki S., Dimopoulos P., Kallimanis Th, Moraiti C., Stavrinides M., Kadis K. 2013. Population composition and structure of Juniperus spp. in Cyprus. Frederick University. Nicosia. [4.2] for allAnonymous. 2001. Http:bornova.ege.edutr/-bgocmen/herptiles.cyprus [Herpetofauna: 3.3, 3.4]Arenberger E. & Wimmer J. 1999. Nachtrag zyr Mikrolepidopterenfauna Zypern. Z.Arb. Gem. Ost. Ent. 51: 41-46. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Arenberger E. 1994. Zusammenfassende Darstellung der Mikrolepidopterenfauna Zyperns. Ann. Musei Goulandris 9: 253-336. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Arenberger E. 1998. Zwei neue Mikrolepidopteren aus Zypern (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Pterophoridae). Stapfia 55: 305-311. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Assing V. & Wunderle P. 2001. On the Staphylinidae of Cyprus (Coleoptera). Entomologische Zeitschrift-Stuttgart 111: 34-41. [3.4]Baldizzone G. 1985. I Microlepidotteri di Cipro: III parte Coleophoridae. Ann. Musei Goulandris 7: 263-270. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Bank R.A. & Hovestadt A. 1991. Notes on the Enidae, 3: Revision of the Enidae of Cyprus (Gastropoda: Pupiloidea) (plate1-4). Schr. Malacozool. 4: 1-25. [3.4]Berger P. 1988. Contribution a l' histoire naturell de l' ile de Chypre. Coleoptera: Cerambycidae Buprestidae Elateridae. Biocosme mesogeen 5: 77-83. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Bergmans W. 1994. Taxonomy & Biogeography of African Fruit Bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). The Genus Rousettus Gray, 1821. Beaufortia 44: 79-126. [3.2.e]Boehme W. & Wiedl H. 1994. Status and zoogeography of the herpetofauna of Cyprus with taxonomic and natural history notes on selected species (Genera: Rana, Coluber, Natrix, Vipera). Amphibia & Reptilia. Zool. Middle East 10: 31-52. [3.3, 3.4]Boye P., Barbel Pott-Dorfer, Karsten Dorfen, A.Dimitropoulos. 1990. New records of bats in Cyprus (Chiroptera) and notes of their biology. Myotis, 28: S.93-100 [3.2.e]Brullo S., Pavone P. & Salmeri C. 1993. Three new species of Allium (Alliaceae) from Cyprus. Candollea 48: 279-290. [3.4]Christodoulou S.Ch. 1996. The flora of Troodos National Forest Park (N.F.P.). Proceedings of the 6th Scientific Conference of the Hellenic Botanical Society. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Christodoulou S.Ch. 2000. Unpublished data on the insects. Lefkosia. [3.3, 3.4]Christodoulou S.Ch. 2000. Unpublished data. [3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2]Council of Europe. 1992. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Appendix I (revised 1992 Strasbourg). [4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1995. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1996. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1997. Birds of Cyprus Checklist 1997. Table of monthly sightings & yearly occurrences 1991-1996. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1998. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Kypriakos Ornithologikos Syndesmos). 1999. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1989. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Cyprus Ornithological Society (Ptinologikos Syndesmos Kyprou). 1990. Annual Report. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Davis S.D., Heywood V.H. & Hamilton A.C. 1994. Centres of Plant Diversity Europe, Africa, South West Asia and the Middle East. WWF and IUCN, UK. p. 354 [4.2]Department of Agriculture. Insects Collection. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lefkosia. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Deschka G. 1974. Neue Lithocolletiden von Zypern (Lepidoptera, Lithocolletidae. Entomologische Berichten Deel 3: 174-179. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Dimitropoulos A., Dimitropoulos S., Nikolaou H. 2006. Personal Communication (observations on bats) [3.2.e]Eddie J. & Makris C. 2001. Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Libytheidae): presence of a breeding colony in the Troodos Mauntains, Cyprus. Entomologist's Gazette 52: 173-180. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Eddie J. 2000. Butterflies of Cyprus 1998 (Records of a year's sightings). The Amateur Entomologists' Society Pamphlet No.15. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Flint P.F. & Stewart P.F. 1992. The Birds of Cyprus - an annotated check-list. B.O.U. Check-list No 6 (2nd Edition). British Ornithologists’ Union. p. 234. [3.2.a, 3.2.b, 3.3, 4.2]Forestry Department. 1991. Meleti anaptyxis E.D.P. Troodous (Survey on the Development of Troodos National Forest Park). Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Cyprus. [4.1]Fuchs J. 1996. Zwei Wochen Schmetterlingsbeobachtungen auf Zypern (4-18.6.1995. Galathea 12/2: 57 62. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Geological Survey Department. 1995. Geologia tis Kyprou (The Geology of Cyprus). Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Lefkosia. [4.1, 4.2]Georgiou G.P. 1977. The insects and mites of Cyprus. Kiphissia, Athens. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Georgiou G.P. 2000. Personal communication on the insects. Lemessos. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Gittenberger E. 1991. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start. Zool. Meded. 65(7): 99-128. [3.4]Gramp S. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vols I-VIII. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.Grimm R. 1991. Tenebrioniden von der Insel Zypern (Insecta: Coleoptera). Biocosme mesogeen 8: 15-49. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Hadjikyriakou G. 1997. I chlorida tis Kyprou mesa apo katalogous kai pinakes (The Flora of Cyprus through catalogues and tables). Limassol, Cyprus. p. 232. [3.3, 3.4]Hausmann A. 1995. Neue Geometriden-Funde aus Gesamtubersicht uber die Fauna (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ges. 85: 79-111. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 1998-2001. Unpublished data: PhD Thesis: Ecology of the Bonelli’s Eagle in Cyprus. [3.2a, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data from the Griffon Vulture project. [3.2a, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the ornithology of Cyprus. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4, 4.2] Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data on the status of Corvus corax, Falco peregrinus in Cyprus. [3.3, 4.2]Iezekiel S. 2001. Unpublished data: from Griffon Vulture project. [3.2a]Iezekiel S., Makris C., Antoniou A., (2004), Important Bird Areas of European Union Importance in Cyprus, published by BirdLife Cyprus, 2004.IUCN-WCMC. 1997. Cyprus: Conservation status listing of Plants. Compiled from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre Plants Database. Status report as of 24 February, 1997. [3.4, 4.2]Jeanne C. 1986. Contribution a l' histoire naturell de l' ile de Chypre. Les coleopteres carabiques. Biocosme mesogeen 3: 1-33. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Kadis Ch.C. 1995. I anaparagogiki viologia ton afstiros prostatevomenon fyton tis kypriakis chloridas (On the reproductive biology of the strictly protected plants of Cyprus). PhD thesis. University of Athens. [4.2]Kourtellarides L. 1998. Breeding Birds of Cyprus with check-list of the birds of Cyprus. Bank of Cyprus Group and Cyprus Ornithological Society. Nicosia, Cyprus. p. 299. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3.4]Litterski B. & Mayrhofer H. 2001. Biodiversity of Mediterranean lichens: Cyprus. Website: http://biobase.kfunigraz.ac.at/lichen/med/cyprus_o.html [4.2]Magnani G. 1993. Nuovi Buprestidi dell'isola di Cipro (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Lambillionea 93: 263-272. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Magnani G. 1995. Notes sur les Buprestides de Chypre avec descriptions de noveaux taxons (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). Biocosme mesogeen 12: 47-52. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Makris Ch. 2001. Unpublished data on insects. Lemessos. [3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Manil L. 1990. Les Rhopaloceres de Chypre. Linnaea Belgica Pars XII, No 8: 313-391. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Mavromoustakis G. Insects Collection, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Department of Agriculture, Lefkosia. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Meikle R.D. 1977, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Vols 1 & 2. The Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Êew. p. 1969. [3.3, 3.4]Meteorological Service. 1993. Meteorological data for the Troodos Mountain range. Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Cyprus. [Other site characteristics]Muret P. & Drumond A. 1999. Description d'une nouvel espece de Dorcus Macleay, endemique de Chypre (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea, Lucanidae). Lambillionea 99: 484-489. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Neophytou P. Insects collection. Municipal Museum of Natural History Larnaka. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Nikolaou H. 2006. Personal Communication (observations on bats) [3.2.e]Pantelas V. & Iezekiel S. 1995. The status of Griffon vultures in Cyprus. Sanctuary, The Ministry of Defence Conservation magazine 24: xx [3.2a, 4.2]Parker R. 1983. The Butterflies of Cyprus. Entomologist's Gazette 34: 17-53. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Pittioni B. 1950. On the insect fauna of Cyprus. Results of the expedition of 1939 by Harald, Hakan and P. H. Lindberg V Hymenoptera aculeate I Diploptera, Fossores und Apoidea der Insel Cypern - Societas Scientiarum Fennica Commentationes Biologicae X. 12. p. 94. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Program LIFE09/NAT/CY/00427 – ICOSTACY - “Improving the conservation status of fauna species in Cyprus: from microhabitat restoration to landscape connectivity” 2010-10 – 2014-03Richarz K. & Limbrunner A. 1993. The World of Bats. The flying goblins of the night. TFH Publications Inc. p. 192. [3.2.e]Riedel A. 1991. Zonitidae und Daudebardiidae von Zypern. Mal. Abh. 15: 101-110. [3.4]Sama G. 1992. Descrizione di nuovi Cerambycidae dell'isola di Cipro (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Lambillionea 92: 297-307. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Sama G. 1994. Deuxieme not sur les Cerambycidae de Chypre. Revision de la collection du Department of Agriculture de Chypre avec Description d' un nouveau Leiopus Servill et de deux Trichoferus Wollaston du ciste (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Biocosme mesogeen 11: 37-47. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Sama G. 2001. Personal communication. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Shakides Th. Insects collection, Agricultural University of Athens. [Insects: 3.3, 3.4, 4.2]Tsintides T., Christodoulou Ch., Demeropoulos C. 2013. Management plan of the priority habitat type 9560* with Juniperus foetidissima and Juniperus oxycedrus at Troodos National Forest Park. Department of Forests. Nicosia. [3.1, 4.1]Tucker G. & Heath M. 1994. Birds in Europe. Their Conservation Status. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 3. BirdLife International. p. 600. [3.2a,b 3.3, 3,4, 4.2Zomeni M., Vogiatzakis I. 2013. Monitoring Plan for priority habitat 9560* (endemic forests with Juniperus foetidissima and J. oxycedrus) at Troodos National Forest Park. Open University of Cyprus. Nicosia. [4.2]IACO Environmental and Water Consultants Ltd & Πτηνολογικός Σύνδεσμος Κύπρου (2016). Ετοιμασία Στόχων Διατήρησης & Διαχειριστικών Σχεδίων για τις Ζώνες Ειδικής Προστασίας (ΖΕΠ) που έχουν καθοριστεί στην Κύπρο σύμφωνα με την Οδηγία 2009/147/ΕΚ (Αρ. Διαγωνισμού 13.25.006.02.02). Υπηρεσία Θήρας & Πανίδας, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών, 1453 Λευκωσία.
http://www.junipercy.org.cy/
http://www.junipercy.org.cy/
http://www.junipercy.org.cy/
http://www.junipercy.org.cy/

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]
CY0398.00
CY042.00

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites:

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
CY04Troodos Nature Reserve 4+0.00
CY03Troodos National Forest Park+98.00
CY05A/A 5660/0.00
CY04Troodos Nature Reserve 1+0.00
CY04Troodos Nature Reserve 3+0.00
CY04Troodos Nature Reserve 2+0.00

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
worldHeritagePainted Churches on the Troodos Region (Ag. Nicolaos Stegis)/0.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

The forest of Troodos was designated as a National Forest Park by the Ministerial Council Decision 36.727 (23/92) on 3/1/1992.In addition, four areas in the park, 220 ha in total, were designated by the Ministerial Council Decision 36.728 (187/84) as Nature Reserve Areas on 3/1/1992.Agios Nicolaos tis Stegis has been designated as a World Heritage Site by Unesco (Report of the 9th Ordinary Session of the World Heritage Committee of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural And Natural Heritage, Paris, 2-6 December 1985).The whole site is proposed as a Special Protection Area (SPA, Dir. 79/409 EEC).

6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Department of Forests
Address:
Email:director@fd.moa.gov.cy
Organisation:Department of Environment
Address:
Email:director@environment.moa.gov.cy

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

X
Yes Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Ethniko Dasiko Parko Troodous’
Link: http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/environment/environmentnew.nsf/All/523C67F6DE748DDCC22580840032C35A?OpenDocument

Name: Δ.Σ. Περιοχής Natura 2000 ‘Εθνικό Δασικό Πάρκο Τροόδους’
Link: http://www.moi.gov.cy/moi/Wildlife/wildlife_new.nsf/All/6D33B5DB087AA3C6C22580E60031B10C?OpenDocument

No, but in preparation
No

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Site management is made according to the forest law which concerns the manegement of all the National Forest Parks and Nature Reserves of Cyprus.Forestry Department, 1991. Meleti anaptyxis E.D.P. Troodous (Survey on the Development of Troodos National Forest Park). Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Cyprus.

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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INSPIRE ID:
Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)
Yes
No

SITE DISPLAY