Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

A

1.2 Site code

GR2310015

1.3 Site name

DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALAS, DYTIKOS ARAKYNTHOS KAI STENA KLEISOURAS

1.4 First Compilation date

1995-04

1.5 Update date

2020-07

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας
Address:               
Email:

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:1988-02
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/6-9-2010 (OJ 1495 B)

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:21.250388
Latitude:38.325102

2.2 Area [ha]

44364.3600

2.3 Marine area [%]

9.6100

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR22Ionia Nisia
GR23Dytiki Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %)
Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %)
Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %)
Marine Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA402Accipiter brevipes          DD   
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus          DD   
BA296Acrocephalus palustris          DD   
BA295Acrocephalus schoenobaenus          DD   
BA297Acrocephalus scirpaceus          DD   
BA168Actitis hypoleucos     
BA168Actitis hypoleucos          DD   
BA247Alauda arvensis          DD   
BA229Alcedo atthis          DD   
BA229Alcedo atthis          DD   
BA229Alcedo atthis    382  382   
BA054Anas acuta    558  1144   
BA052Anas crecca    10530  10530   
BA052Anas crecca    3243  6168   
BA053Anas platyrhynchos    22  22   
BA053Anas platyrhynchos    292  757   
BA255Anthus campestris          DD   
BA258Anthus cervinus          DD   
BA257Anthus pratensis          DD   
BA259Anthus spinoletta          DD   
BA256Anthus trivialis          DD   
BA226Apus apus          DD   
BA028Ardea cinerea    929  929   
BA028Ardea cinerea    131  234   
BA169Arenaria interpres        DD   
BA059Aythya ferina    2306  6203   
BA061Aythya fuligula    150  150   
BA215Bubo bubo          DD   
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus    39  39   
BA087Buteo buteo     
BA087Buteo buteo    40  40   
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla    2300  2300   
BA144Calidris alba    4420  4420   
BA149Calidris alpina    3016  5161   
BA147Calidris ferruginea    1471  1471   
BA145Calidris minuta    855  2078   
BA861Calidris pugnax    1264  1264   
BA146Calidris temminckii    304  304   
BA479Cecropis daurica          DD   
BA479Cecropis daurica    400  400   
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus    220  220   
BA138Charadrius alexandrinus    956  2010   
BA137Charadrius hiaticula          DD   
BA137Charadrius hiaticula          DD   
BA198Chlidonias leucopterus    45  45   
BA080Circaetus gallicus          DD   
BA080Circaetus gallicus     
BA082Circus cyaneus          DD   
BA083Circus macrourus          DD   
BA859Clanga clanga     
BA113Coturnix coturnix          DD   
BA212Cuculus canorus          DD   
BA212Cuculus canorus          DD   
BA036Cygnus olor    11  222   
BA738Delichon urbicum (urbica)          DD   
BA738Delichon urbicum (urbica)          DD   
BA026Egretta garzetta    1491  1491   
BA026Egretta garzetta    356  356   
BA026Egretta garzetta    633  633   
BA447Emberiza caesia          DD   
BA379Emberiza hortulana          DD   
BA382Emberiza melanocephala    200  200   
BA382Emberiza melanocephala          DD   
BA269Erithacus rubecula          DD   
BA269Erithacus rubecula          DD   
BA511Falco cherrug     
BA098Falco columbarius     
BA103Falco peregrinus     
BA099Falco subbuteo          DD   
BA097Falco vespertinus          DD   
BA321Ficedula albicollis          DD   
BA322Ficedula hypoleuca          DD   
BA320Ficedula parva          DD   
BA657Fringilla coelebs all others    1700  1700   
BA657Fringilla coelebs all others          DD   
BA125Fulica atra    301  301   
BA125Fulica atra    16893  24873   
BA153Gallinago gallinago    52  208   
BA154Gallinago media          DD   
BA130Haematopus ostralegus    25  25   
BA130Haematopus ostralegus    10   
BA131Himantopus himantopus    133  133   
BA131Himantopus himantopus          DD   
BA299Hippolais icterina          DD   
BA251Hirundo rustica    18000  18000   
BA251Hirundo rustica          DD   
BA862Hydrocoloeus minutus          DD   
BA862Hydrocoloeus minutus          DD   
BA487Iduna pallida s. str.          DD   
BA022Ixobrychus minutus    12  12       
BA233Jynx torquilla          DD   
BA338Lanius collurio    100  100   
BA339Lanius minor          DD   
BA341Lanius senator          DD   
BA341Lanius senator    90  90   
BA179Larus ridibundus    3650  3650   
BA868Leiopicus medius    90  90   
BA156Limosa limosa    627  627   
BA156Limosa limosa          DD   
BA292Locustella luscinioides          DD   
BA246Lullula arborea    398  398   
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos          DD   
BA855Mareca penelope    6047  8634   
BA069Mergus serrator    15  70   
BA230Merops apiaster    1000  1000   
BA875Microcarbo pygmaeus          DD   
BA875Microcarbo pygmaeus          DD   
BA074Milvus milvus          DD   
BA262Motacilla alba    50  50   
BA262Motacilla alba    1265  1265   
BA261Motacilla cinerea          DD   
BA260Motacilla flava          DD   
BA260Motacilla flava    420  450       
BA319Muscicapa striata          DD   
BA768Numenius arquata arquata    103  180   
BA159Numenius tenuirostris          DD   
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax          DD   
BA278Oenanthe hispanica          DD   
BA278Oenanthe hispanica    200  200   
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe          DD   
BA337Oriolus oriolus          DD   
BA214Otus scops          DD   
BA094Pandion haliaetus     
BA355Passer hispaniolensis          DD   
BA355Passer hispaniolensis          DD   
BA072Pernis apivorus          DD   
BA391Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis    1892  3427   
BA663Phoenicopterus roseus    1333  1333   
BA663Phoenicopterus roseus    6964  6964   
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros    172  172   
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus          DD   
BA572Phylloscopus collybita s. str.          DD   
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix          DD   
BA316Phylloscopus trochilus          DD   
BA140Pluvialis apricaria    767  1414   
BA141Pluvialis squatarola    252  252   
BA005Podiceps cristatus          DD   
BA005Podiceps cristatus    557  1107   
BA008Podiceps nigricollis    356  778   
BA119Porzana porzana          DD   
BA249Riparia riparia    600  600   
BA249Riparia riparia    350  450       
BA275Saxicola rubetra          DD   
BA857Spatula clypeata          DD   
BA857Spatula clypeata    1342  2517   
BA193Sterna hirundo    216  221   
BA885Sternula albifrons    124  124   
BA210Streptopelia turtur    1700  1700   
BA210Streptopelia turtur    100  100   
BA351Sturnus vulgaris          DD   
BA310Sylvia borin          DD   
BA304Sylvia cantillans    800  800   
BA309Sylvia communis          DD   
BA574Sylvia curruca          DD   
BA228Tachymarptis melba          DD   
BA161Tringa erythropus    146  146   
BA161Tringa erythropus    82   
BA166Tringa glareola          DD   
BA164Tringa nebularia          DD   
BA164Tringa nebularia    30   
BA165Tringa ochropus          DD   
BA163Tringa stagnatilis          DD   
BA163Tringa stagnatilis          DD   
BA162Tringa totanus    50  50   
BA162Tringa totanus    534  1099   
BA283Turdus merula          DD   
BA285Turdus philomelos          DD   
BA232Upupa epops          DD   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

Species

Population in the site

Motivation

Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A898Accipiter nisus all others                   
A898Accipiter nisus all others                   
A898Accipiter nisus all others                   
A324Aegithalos caudatus    656  656           
A324Aegithalos caudatus    656  656           
A324Aegithalos caudatus    656  656           
A025Bubulcus ibis                   
A025Bubulcus ibis                   
A025Bubulcus ibis                   
A364Carduelis carduelis    1500  1500           
A364Carduelis carduelis    1500  1500           
A268Cercotrichas galactotes                   
A268Cercotrichas galactotes                   
A268Cercotrichas galactotes                   
A288Cettia cetti    1200  1200           
A288Cettia cetti    1200  1200           
A136Charadrius dubius    15  15             
A136Charadrius dubius    15  15             
A136Charadrius dubius    15  15             
A363Chloris chloris    900  900           
A363Chloris chloris    900  900           
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
A289Cisticola juncidis                   
A373Coccothraustes coccothraustes                   
A373Coccothraustes coccothraustes                   
A206Columba livia    636  636           
A206Columba livia    636  636           
A206Columba livia    636  636           
A687Columba palumbus palumbus                   
A687Columba palumbus palumbus                   
A350Corvus corax                   
A350Corvus corax                   
A347Corvus monedula                   
A347Corvus monedula                   
A483Cyanistes caeruleus s. str.    5576  5576           
A483Cyanistes caeruleus s. str.    5576  5576           
A240Dendrocopos minor                   
A240Dendrocopos minor                   
A383Emberiza calandra                   
A383Emberiza calandra                   
A377Emberiza cirlus                   
A377Emberiza cirlus                   
A381Emberiza schoeniclus                   
A381Emberiza schoeniclus                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A096Falco tinnunculus                   
A244Galerida cristata    1200  1200           
A244Galerida cristata    1200  1200           
A244Galerida cristata    1200  1200           
A123Gallinula chloropus                   
A123Gallinula chloropus                   
A342Garrulus glandarius    800  800           
A342Garrulus glandarius    800  800           
A604Larus michahellis    1123  1123           
A604Larus michahellis    1123  1123           
A604Larus michahellis    1123  1123           
A604Larus michahellis    646  646           
A604Larus michahellis    646  646           
A604Larus michahellis    646  646           
A604Larus michahellis    544  544           
A604Larus michahellis    544  544           
A604Larus michahellis    544  544           
A476Linaria cannabina                   
A476Linaria cannabina                   
A270Luscinia luscinia    50  50           
A270Luscinia luscinia    50  50           
A152Lymnocryptes minimus                   
A152Lymnocryptes minimus                   
A152Lymnocryptes minimus                   
A281Monticola solitarius    43  43           
A281Monticola solitarius    43  43           
A058Netta rufina    10  10             
A058Netta rufina    10  10             
A058Netta rufina    10  10             
A158Numenius phaeopus                   
A158Numenius phaeopus                   
A158Numenius phaeopus                   
A323Panurus biarmicus                   
A323Panurus biarmicus                   
A330Parus major    2500  2500           
A330Parus major    2500  2500           
A620Passer domesticus s. str.                   
A620Passer domesticus s. str.                   
A356Passer montanus                   
A356Passer montanus                   
A356Passer montanus                   
A472Periparus ater all others    153  153           
A472Periparus ater all others    153  153           
A343Pica pica                   
A343Pica pica                   
A866Picus viridis s. str.    100  100           
A866Picus viridis s. str.    100  100           
A491Poecile lugubris    315  315           
A491Poecile lugubris    315  315           
A491Poecile lugubris    315  315           
A266Prunella modularis                   
A266Prunella modularis                   
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris    13  13           
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris    13  13           
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris                   
A250Ptyonoprogne rupestris                   
A318Regulus ignicapilla                   
A318Regulus ignicapilla                   
A317Regulus regulus                   
A317Regulus regulus                   
A336Remiz pendulinus                   
A336Remiz pendulinus                   
A336Remiz pendulinus                   
A276Saxicola (torquatus) rubicola                   
A276Saxicola (torquatus) rubicola                   
A155Scolopax rusticola                   
A155Scolopax rusticola                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A361Serinus serinus                   
A332Sitta europaea    1500  1500           
A332Sitta europaea    1500  1500           
A445Sitta neumayer    400  400           
A445Sitta neumayer    400  400           
A478Spinus spinus                   
A478Spinus spinus                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                   
A209Streptopelia decaocto                   
A311Sylvia atricapilla                   
A311Sylvia atricapilla                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A306Sylvia hortensis                   
A305Sylvia melanocephala    8636  8636           
A305Sylvia melanocephala    8636  8636           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    12  12           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    12  12           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    12  12           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    326  580           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    326  580           
A004Tachybaptus ruficollis    326  580           
A676Troglodytes troglodytes all others                   
A676Troglodytes troglodytes all others                   
A284Turdus pilaris                   
A284Turdus pilaris                   
A284Turdus pilaris                   
A287Turdus viscivorus                   
A287Turdus viscivorus                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N182.15
N062.15
N192.15
N154.31
N0215.08
N032.15
N234.31
N096.46
N122.15
N0810.77
N0146.17
N042.15

Total Habitat Cover

100.00000000000003

Other Site Characteristics

The site presents a complex ecosystem that is located in western Sterea Ellada. It is one of the most significant wetlands in Greece. It is also reaching the Ionion Sea and containg the terrestrial areas of the Echinades islands group. Here, a very large lagoon, the Mesolongi lagoon (11,200 ha) predominates in the central part of the wetland system. There are also a number of other smaller lagoons to the north (Aitoliko lagoon, 1400 ha), east (Kleisova, 3000 ha), and the west (Gourounopoules, Paliopotamos, 800 ha). The lagoons of Mesolongi lie behind a fragmented sandy coastal ridge which is located between the mouth of the river Evinos to the east and the Koutsilaris hill to the west; they are connected with the Patraikos Gulf (which forms part of the Ionian Sea) by a large opening. A part of delta of the river Evinos is included in the eastern part of the Mesolongi plain. In the extreme west of the area a part of delta of the river Acheloos occurs. Most of the plain is formed from the sediments deposited by these two rivers. Evinos has deposited sediments that cover a part of the area from Mesolongi eastwards, while sediments from the river Acheloos cover the area from Mesolongi to the west. In the western part of the site, the sediments of the river Acheloos surround rocks and hills, of which the Koutsilaris (433 m) is the highest. In the same part several former beds of the river Acheloos can be distinguished. In places within the area of the lagoons near Ag. Triada, Ag.Taxiarchis and Megalo Vouno, former sand-dune ridges may be observed. The Mesolongi lagoon system was formed in the Holocene. The basin of the lagoon is divided into the Aitoliko and Mesolongi lagoons, which are connected to each other by a narrow channel. From a geological point of view, the area belongs to the Ionian and Gavrovo zones and is composed mainly of sedimentary rocks. A small area of the Gavrovo zone is composed mainly of Upper Cretaceous limestones, Eocenic limestones and flysch. A larger area, in which Echinades islands are included, belonging to the Ionian zone and is composed of Triassic crystalines and evaporites, Jurassic limestones with ceratoliths, Cretaceous and Eocenic limestones and flysch. The soil of the area has originated from erosion of the above rocks. In the whole area dominates the clay deposited in salt water; only along the river beds we find clay deposited in fresh water. The salt water clay has a bluish colour, while the fresh water clay is brownish. The coastal ridge consists of sand. As mentioned above, the lagoons of Mesolongi are connected with the sea by means of several wide openings in the coastal ridge. Nevertheless some parts of the lagoons are rather isolated. This results in large fluctuations of salinity during the course of the year. The salinity of the shallow waters south of Aitoliko and probably near the former monastery Ag. Taxiarchis, also fluctuates considerably. The high salinity in summer, caused by evaporation, is tempered by fresh water flowing into the lagoons from the surrounding fields and some small brooks. During the winter large amounts of fresh water drain into the lagoons. In winter water from the Evinos and Acheloos rivers probably also flows into the lagoons on occasions. The lagoons studied are shallow. Their maximum depth is about 2 m but large areas have a depth of about 1m. Only the Aitoliko lagoon has a maximum depth of 28 m. The principal human activity in the lagoons is fishing. For this purpose elaborate pile screens have been constructed in many creeks using the stems of Arundo donax. In some places large quantities of this material are washed ashore and become substrate for a special type of vegetation. The Mesolongi lagoons were formerly surrounded mostly by extensive salt marshes, large parts of which were drained for agricultural purposes, but still remain infertile and serve as a wildlife habitat. Despite land reclamation, salt marshes, sand-banks and mudflats still occur around the lagoons. A detailed description of the area's plant communities is given by Wolff (1968) and Szijj (1983). Generally the area is characterized by variable habitats. Extensive areas of salt marshes exist where the plant genera Salicornia and Arthrocnemum are dominant, as well as extensive areas of shallow water with a rich submerged vegetation of Ruppia, Enteromorpha and Zostera. Apart from the vegetation units already mentioned (section 3.1) extensive, dense reed communities (Phragmitetum) cover substantial areas, mainly in places where freshwater flows into the lagoons. Such areas occur mainly on the north and northeast shores of the Kleisova lagoon, along the western shore of the Mesolongi lagoon, along the eastern shore of the Aitoliko lagoon at the shore of the Skantzochoiros lagoon, along drainage channels and along the edges of the Acheloos river. In these reed communities, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia dominate. Despite intense agricultural activities, sufficient hedges of natural vegetation with Phragmites australis, Tamarix parviflora and Juncus maritimus grow between the small fields. In these microbiotopes live importand taxa populations. Furthermore, more animals exist in the drainage channels and the surrounding natural vegetation. Close to the reed belts, stands of Scirpetum maritimi occur. These communities are observed mainly at the Mesolongi lagoon (near Poros) as well as several places to the NE of the Kleisova lagoon. It is also worth mentioning that a long, wide coastal strip with sand-dunes occurs mainly to the south-west of the area. The main plant communities are Agropyretum mediterraneum, Ammophiletum arenariae and Cakiletea maritimae. On the islet of Louros at the inner places behind the dunes, a significant cluster of Juniperus phoenicea grows. All this area is extremely valuable. On the surrounding hills clusters of Quercus macrolepis, macchie and phrygana (with Phlomis fruticosa as the dominant taxon) grow. The Acheloos river is the second largest river in the Balkans. On its estuaries as well as along its banks three main types of riparian forests grow: 1) Riparian forests with Salix alba and Populus nigra as dominant species (such forests occur mainly in the southern area of the delta as well as along the river banks); 2) A forest of Fraxinus angustifolia near Lesini, which is the most valuable part of the riparian vegetation of this area; 3) Clusters with Tamarix parviflora and Vitex agnus-castus (mainly in the southern part of the Delta at Kali Chitsa, as well as along the bank of the river). The estuaries of the Evinos river extend from the east shore of the Kleisova lagoon to the foot of Mt. Varasova. The River Evinos springs from Mt. Vardousia and flows into the Patraikos Gulf. It has a length of 110 km and its drainage basin is 1070 km2. It is noticeable that the riparian vegetation of river Evinos appears significantly different from the equivalent vegetation of River Acheloos. This happens because the Evinos river has not a constant and satisfactory flow during all the year. Therefore the clusters with Salix, Fraxinus and Ulmus, as well as the reed belts (Phragmitetum), all along the edge of the river are rare. On the contrary, the development of Nerium oleander in the area is very intense. About 5 km from the mounth of the river clusters of Populus alba, P. nigra and Arundo donax occur. Close to the mouth of the river riparian vegetation with Platanus orientalis, Nerium oleander and Vitex agnus-castus is developed. At the estuaries of the river, the flow is slow, and poor vegetation with Zostera noltii, Myriophyllum spicatum and Valisneria spiralis occur. Despite the intense agricultural activities enough hedges of natural vegetation with Phragmites, Tamarix and Juncus grow between the small fields. Small isolated formations with Phragmites communis occur at the estuaries of the Evinos river as well as in several places along the edge of the river. Close to the reed belts, stands of Scirpetum maritimum occur, at the place where the salinity increases. At the coastal zone extending from the east shore of the Kleisova lagoon to the west of the mouth of the Evinos river (ca. 3 km in length and 0.5 km in width) the land is lower than sea level and is devoid of discharge, resulting in overflow due to rain water. In that place an extensive saltmarsh with a gradiated natural vegetation (Tamaricetum, Juncetum, Arthocnemetum, Salicornietum) is developed. The coasts of Echinades islands provide a number of submarine and semi-submarine sea caves wich are important seal habitats. The species Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis which are recorded as being present in this area, are included in Directive 92/43/EEC, the Bern and Bonn Conventions, CITES and Corine-Biotopes. They are also recorded by the Presidential Decree 67/1981, and Delphinus delphis is recorded in thw Greek Red Data Book as "Vulnerable". Another important habitat type in thw area are the small Posidonia fields. The non-coastal parts of the islands are preserved in very good natural, ecological condition, they are used by seabirds for their breeding grounds. They also present special interest from phytosociological and management points of view. The most important vertebrate taxa are the fow bats of the generate Rhinolophus and Myotis (both threatened taxa recorded in the Red Data Book as "Endagered" and "Vulnerable" respectively). The tortoise Testudo hermanni and the snake Elaphe quatuorlincata, which are all included in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC. The other importand species (section 3.3) are allocated C and D motivations because they are protected by the Bern Convention and the Presidential Decree 67/1981. A number of raptors are recorded as occuring in the area (Aquila chrysaetos, Circactus gallicus, falco peregrinus, Gyps fulvus, Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and most of these are classified as "Threatened" in the Greek Red Data Book.

4.2 Quality and importance

This is an important site for breeding, passage and wintering waterbirds and raptors. The studied area is a compact ecosystem which although has been strongly influenced by human activities still has significant ecological value, for that reason the wetland it is included in the Ramsar Convention. The flora and fauna of the area is largely specialized due to the extensive presence and dominance of wet-element taxa. As mentioned above, despite land reclamation, extensive areas of salt marshes sandbanks and mudflats still exist. An important part of this site is the pure Fraxinus forest (the only one in Greece) that exists near the Lesini area. Relicts from such a riparian forest occur also on the eastern banks of the Evinos river. These areas have large ornithological and ecological value. The alluvium of the Evinos river are very significant and in a very good condition. The estuary of this river consists of one of the most harmonized ecosystems we have encountered. The plant communities of this area are in excellent condition. The coastal zone between the Kleisova lagoon and the Evinos river is the largest unique and uniform part of natural saltmarsh in this site; it is also in a very good natural state. Of great ecological importance is also the ammophilous vegetation of this site which grows mainly on the islets of the lagoons. The important number of site' s islands presents big interest from phytosociological and floristic points of view. The vegetation of the site is composed of a lot of interesting endemic, rare or threatened plants.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
MA09b
LD01b
LA04.01b
LC01b
MA10.01o
ML09i
C03.03
LF01i
ME03b
LE04b
MD01.02b
MH06.01o
MA07b
MC01.05b
LA04b
LG01o
LE02i
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

1:Heath, M. F. and Evans, M. I., eds. 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. 2:Southern Europe. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 8, p. 791.3. De nobel W.T. (ed.)1995., 1990, APPENDIX II. Counts of waterbirds per area, Spring 1990. In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist. (pp. 127)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 4. De nobel W.T. (ed.)1995., 1990, APPENDIX III. List of birds ringed, 12 March - 25 May 1990. In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist (pp. 136)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 5. F. Cottaar & W.T. de Nobel., 1990, Coloumark checking of waders in the Messolonghi wetlands, spring 1990 In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist. (pp. 136)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 6. Georgiadis Th., Georgiou O., Dimopoulos P., Chondropoulos B.P., Fraguedakis-Tsolis S., Kaspiris P., Mitsainas G. & G. Tryfonopoulos, 2009, http://natura2000.eea.europa.eu/natura2000/SDFPublic.aspxsite=GR2310001, Department Of Biology, University Of Patras, Gr 265 00 Patras Greece. Kazantzidis S., Ious 4 Gr 546 32 Thessaloniki Greece. Akriotis T., Department Of Environment, Aegean University, Karantoni 17, Gr 80100 Mytilini Greece. Legakis A.: Zoological Museum 7. Huijssteeden van E. & Leeuwen van G., 1990, Birds Of The Messolonghi Wetladns - Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, Spring 1990, Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 8. Joensen A.H., Preuss N.O., Hansen P., 1986 - 1987, Waterfowl And Raptors Wintering In Western Greece And The Peloponnese, 1986-1987, in NATURA JUTLANDICA - 1987, 22 (5): 89-100 9. Liordos V & Goutner V, 2007. Spatial Patterns Of Winter Diet Of The Great Cormorant In Coastal Wetlands Of Greece, Waterbirds, 30(1): 103-111, AUTH Department of Biology – Sector of Zoology 10. Pergantis P & Handrinos G, Unpublished personal observation data from the years 1963, 1969, 1980 and 1981 11. Pergantis P., Goutner V., Handrinos G., Akriotis T, 1989, The Breeding Status Of The Gull-Billed Tern (Gelochelidon Nilotica) In Western Greece, Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 1994, 22, 171-178, 12. R.Foppen, Ph. Pergantis, Y. Roussopoulos & F.Saris., 1963, 1990, Breeding birds in the Messolonghi wetlands, spring 1990. In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist. (pp. 79)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 13. R.Foppen, Ph. Pergantis, Y. Roussopoulos & F.Saris., 1990, Coloumark checking of waders in the Messolonghi wetlands, spring 1990 In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist. (pp. 136)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 14. Sakelarides T.M., Konstantinou I.K., Hela D.G., Lambropoulou D, Dimou A., Albanis T.A., 2003, Accumulation profiles of persistent organoclorines in liver and fat tissues of various waterbird species from Greece, Chemosphere 63 (2006) 1392-1409 15. Wolff, W.J., Series of years, Spring And Summer Observations From Mesolonghion, Greece, ARDEA, 54: 68-75, 1966 16. Y Roussopoulos, Ph. Pergantis and G.Handrinos, 1983 - 1990, Appendix IV. Checklist of the birds of the Messolonghi Wetlands. In: De Nobel W.T. (ed) 1995. Birds of the Messolonghi wetlands.Eastern Mediterranean Wader Project, spring 1990. WIWO-report 53, Zeist. (pp. 137)., Foundation Working Group International Waterbirds And Wetland Research (WIWO) 17. Roussopoulos Y, 1989, http://ornithologiki.gr/page_iba.phpaID=91&loc=en, Hellenic Ornithological Society 18. Roussopoulos Y, 1990 Impo