Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR23Dytiki Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1140  info      32.9971  0.00 
1150  info  X     476.204  0.00 
1210  info      1.02114  0.00 
1310  info      0.112511  0.00 
1420  info      58.2877  0.00 
2110  info      8.9514  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
F1152Aphanius fasciatus    10  11 
R1279Elaphe quatuorlineata         
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
1277Eryx jaculus                   
1277Eryx jaculus                   
1277Eryx jaculus                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
5009Pipistrellus pygmaeus                   
5009Pipistrellus pygmaeus                   
5009Pipistrellus pygmaeus                   
6092Platyceps najadum                   
6092Platyceps najadum                   
6092Platyceps najadum                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
Syngnathus abaster                   
Syngnathus abaster                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Kotychi (or Neophytos) is a brackish coastal lagoon situated some kilometres to the north of the cape of Kyllini. It is the largest lagoon remaining in the western Peloponnisos after the drainage of the Agoulinitsa lagoon. Its surface presents strong seasonal fluctuations depending on the annual rainfall. Kotychi is a shallow lagoon with a depth of 30-40cm. It is fed by considerable quantities of fresh water input from several small streams and torrents, the largest of these being Brantzeleiko, Gouvos, Sykias and Trikokkia. These streams enter the lagoon mainly in its southern and eastern sides. At the centre of its western side there is an opening almost 30 m in width, which links the lagoon with the Ionian Sea. The salinity of the water tends to be kept low and the depth of the water tends to be reduced due to the deposition of suspended matter brought into the lagoon by the streams. These streams are also used as main drainage ditches from the surrounding agricultural land. The soil of the area consists mainly of alluvial and lacustrine sedimentary deposits. The deeper layers are a mixture of sands pebbles and stones. Presently the majority of the surrounding area is agricultural land and only a narrow natural zone occurs around the lagoon. Ammophilous vegetation is limited to the narrow sandy zone on the western side which separates the lagoon from the Ionian Sea. In this zone dunes with the dominating species Ammophila arenaria develop mainly near the opening of the lagoon, as well as to the northwest of it. The presence of the species Eryngium maritimum, Echinophora spinosa, Cyperus capitatus, Sporobolus pungens, Pancratium maritimum, Euphorbia peplis, Salsola kali, Cakile maritima etc. is significant on this side of the lagoon. On this same side, in a zone parallel to the ammophilous vegetation, characteristic vegetation comprising Arthrocnemum fruticosum, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus also grows in this zone. Apart from the above mentioned species Scirpus maritimus, Phragmites australis, Elymus hispidus and Juncus maritimus are present with a high coverage. Halophytic associations consisting of mainly Arthrocnemum fruticosum or Salicornia europaea grow almost all around the lagoon, as well as on the islets occurring in the lagoon itself. The participation in these associations of the species Halimione portulacoides is also of significance. Where many streams enter the lagoon in its eastern side, the presence of Phragmites australis, Scirpus maritimus and Typha domingensis is noteworthy. Great surfaces with Scirpus maritimus grow on the northern side of the lagoon. Small clusters of Tamarix are found limited to the south-eastern side of the lagoon only. Brackish water vegetation grows in a large area of the shallow lagoon. It is characterized by the species Ruppia cirrhosa and Zostera nolti. Potamogeton pectinatus is less frequent at the eastern part of the lagoon. At this same side, the species Lemna gibba grows among the plants of Scirpus maritimus. In the salty water of the lagoon, the species Ruppia maritima and Enteromorpha intestinalis occur. At present we don't have much data regarding the microflora of the lagoon. The smell of hydrogen sulphate at the eastern side of the lagoon, as well as at the entering streams probably indicates the occurrence of bacteria and Cyanophyceae. It is noticeable that around the halophytic associations, small size meadows which are usually under cultivation, occur. South of the lagoon adjacent minor salt marshes with Salicornia, Juncus and reed beds exist along ditches. In the north-western part of the site the pine forest begins together with shruby vegetation which is actually the southern part of Strofilia forest. The site extends eastwards a few meters beyond the limits of the wet meadows with Juncus, northwards to the village of Brinias and southwards up to Kragareika. The western limit of the site is the seashore of the Gulf of Kyllini. The majority of this area is cultivated mainly with maize, tomatoes, potatoes and Citrus trees. Areas of cultivated land are used as forage pastures for free grazing.

4.2 Quality and importance

Kotychi is the largest and the most significant lagoon occurring in the Peloponnisos. Although agricultural activity has been intensified around the Kotychi wetland, the wetland habitats themselves have not been significantly affected by such work. From an ornithological point of view, the lagoon has great ecological interest because it is the southernmost lagoon on the western migration route of many birds. For this reason it is a major resting station for migratory birds. The flora of this lagoon includes the species Halocnemum strobilaceum, the populations of which are very degraded in Greece and must be protected. Also, the species Cotula coronopifolia, which has an interesting geographical distribution from a phytogeographical point of view. Pancratium maritimum, which is included in section 3.3 with motivation D, is a species whose populations have been reduced along the Greek coasts. Furthermore, the examined area consists a natural ecological laboratory for education and research and is also widely used for fishing. For Caretta caretta sandy beach of the site (especially the belt-shaped islet in front of the lagoon) seems to be quite a satisfactory nesting place., with about 20 nests/ km/ season (Cheiras, pers.comm.). Several more species listed in section 3.3 have been evaluated as Other Important Species. Ablepharus kitaibelii, Eryx jaculus, the remaining taxa justify motivation D because they are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. In addition, some taxa, namely the toad Bufo viridis, the frogs Hyla arborea and Rana dalmatina, the lizard A. kitaibelii and the colubrid snake Natrix tessellata, have been evaluated by the CORINE-Biotopes Project receiving motivation D for this reason. Zoologically, this site is also important because of the interesting avifauna living in the area. This avifauna includes herons, egrets, bitterns, ibises, flamingos, pochards, ducks, terns, and waders as well as birds of prey (eagles, harriers) etc. many of which are threatened taxa in Greece. Due to such a rich fauna, Kotychi lagoon is considered as an E.C. Important Bird Area and is a Ramsar Convention Site.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Arnold E.N, Burton J.A. & D.W. Ovenden. 1978. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. (4.2)Bern Convention (Appendices II and III). (3.3, 3.4, 4.2).Chondropoulos B.P. 1986. A checklist of the Greek reptil


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR92Ethniko Parko ygrotopon Kotychiou - Strofylias, Zoni B- Perifereiaki zoni prostasias*7.05
GR96Ethniko Parko Ygrotopon Kotychiou - Strofylias-100.00
GR08Ethniko Parko ygrotopon Kotychiou - Strofylias, Zoni A - Periochi Prostasias tis Fysis*92.95

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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