Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR24Sterea Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
3240  info      27.035  0.00 
3290  info      0.00         
4090  info      3486.56  0.00 
5210  info      3721.06  0.00 
6230  info  X     260.403  0.00 
8140  info      57.3622  0.00 
8210  info      789.013  0.00 
92C0  info      16.776  0.00 
9560  info  X     2234.96  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
A1193Bombina variegata          DD 
P1605Bupleurum capillare    14000  15000 
M1352Canis lupus   
P6927Himantoglossum jankae    340  340 
M1355Lutra lutra         
R1217Testudo hermanni          DD 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Abies cephalonica                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
1276Ablepharus kitaibelii                   
Acantholimon echinus ssp. echinus                   
Acer heldreichii                   
Achillea umbellata                   
Allium heldreichii                   
Allium parnassicum                   
Alyssum gustavssonii                   
Alyssum taygeteum                   
Amelanchier ovalis ssp. integrifolia                   
Aquilegia ottonis ssp. ottonis                   
Arabis bryoides                   
Arenaria conferta ssp. conferta                   
Arenaria filicaulis ssp. graeca                   
Arenaria gionae                   
Asperula boissieri                   
Asperula lutea                   
Asperula oetaea                   
Aster alpinus                   
Astragalus apollineus                   
Astragalus hellenicus                   
Astragalus lacteus                   
Astragalus sempervirens ssp. cephalonicus                   
Aurinia gionae                   
Beta nana                   
2361Bufo bufo      10000           
2361Bufo bufo      10000           
6997Bufotes viridis                 
6997Bufotes viridis                 
6997Bufotes viridis                 
Campanula aizoon ssp. aizoon                   
Campanula radicosa                   
Campanula rupicola                   
Carum heldreichii                   
Cerastium candidissimum                   
Cirsium appendiculatum                   
Cirsium heldreichii                   
Convolvulus libanoticus                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
Corydalis parnassica                   
Crocus veluchensis                   
Cynoglottis barrelieri ssp. phocidica                   
Dianthus biflorus                   
Dianthus deltoides ssp. degenii                   
Dianthus deltoides ssp. degenii                   
Dianthus haematocalyx ssp. ventricosus                   
Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus                   
Dianthus serratifolius ssp. abbreviatus                   
Dianthus tymphresteus                   
Draba lacaitae                   
Draba parnassica                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
Edraianthus parnassicus                   
Erodium chrysanthum                   
Euphorbia capitulata                   
1363Felis silvestris                   
1363Felis silvestris                   
1363Felis silvestris                   
Gypsophila nana                   
Hypericum elongatum                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
1251Lacerta trilineata    501  1000           
1251Lacerta trilineata    501  1000           
1251Lacerta trilineata    501  1000           
Laserpitium pseudomeum                   
Lysimachia serpyllifolia                   
Minuartia confusa                   
Minuartia juniperina                   
Minuartia stellata                   
Minuartia verna                   
1341Muscardinus avellanarius                   
1341Muscardinus avellanarius                   
1341Muscardinus avellanarius                   
Natrix natrix                   
Natrix natrix                   
Ornithogalum atticum                   
Paronychia polygonifolia                   
5363Pelophylax kurtmuelleri                   
5363Pelophylax kurtmuelleri                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
5012Plecotus macrobullaris                   
5012Plecotus macrobullaris                   
5012Plecotus macrobullaris                   
Poa thessala                   
1238Podarcis erhardii      10000           
1238Podarcis erhardii      10000           
1238Podarcis erhardii      10000           
1256Podarcis muralis      10000           
1256Podarcis muralis      10000           
1256Podarcis muralis      10000           
1208Rana graeca    501  1000           
1208Rana graeca    501  1000           
1208Rana graeca    501  1000           
Rhamnus sibthorpianus                   
Rindera graeca                   
2351Salamandra salamandra                   
2351Salamandra salamandra                   
Saxifraga sibthorpii                   
Sedum apoleipon                   
Seseli libanotis ssp. libanotis                   
Seseli parnassicum                   
Silene auriculata                   
Silene barbeyana                   
Silene linifolia ssp. sporadum                   
Silene multicaulis ssp. genistifolia                   
Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa                   
Solenanthus stamineus                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
1333Tadarida teniotis                   
Thamnosciadium junceum                   
Thymus leucotrichus                   
Trifolium parnassii                   
Trinia frigida                   
2353Triturus alpestris    251  500           
2353Triturus alpestris    251  500           
Triturus vulgaris                   
Triturus vulgaris                   
Typhlops vermicularis                   
Typhlops vermicularis                   
Verbascum epixanthinum                   
Verbascum graecum                   
Verbascum speciosum ssp. megaphlomos                   
Veronica thymifolia                   
Viola chelmea                   
Viola graeca                   
Viola poetica                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
6091Zamenis longissimus                   
6091Zamenis longissimus                   
6091Zamenis longissimus                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Ghiona is the highest mountain in South Greece (2510 m) and the fifth highest in Greece.From a geological point of view, Mt. Ghiona belongs to the geotectonic zone of "Parnasos-Ghiona" having limestone as the main geological substrate (the total thickness of the limestone layer is estimated to be about 1800 m and only in some parts of the surface flysch and conglomerate deposits occur. A main element of the above series is the existence of many karstic formations and three horizons of bauxite intercalating in the continuous limestone series. From a geomorphological point of view, there are three main mountain crests converging to the highest peak (pyramid). The most important of these is the one to the south with a length of 13 km. On both sides of the crest a ravine occurs, Reka to the left and Lazorema to the right. This whole geological feature posseses significant ecological importance. The ravine of Reka (12 km long) is characterized by large steep slopes, and seasonal rushing water, whereas Lazorema is 4 km long with high slopes (1000-1200m alt.). In addition to these, many plateaux and conglomerate areas exist.In the above geological substrates there is a variety of vegetation types with dominant species being Abies cephalonica extending from 800-1800 m altitude. In the lower areas there are formations of evergreen broadleaved species, with main representatives being Quercus coccifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, while in some areas there are individuals of Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia. Apart from these taxa, in some parts the north-west mountain range small formations of Platanus orientalis and Salix alba occur. Above the limits of the Abies cephalonica forest, grazing areas occur (stepped grasslands). Also Juniperus formations exist, with dominant species being Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina. Finally, in the rocky formations and conglomerates adapted plant associations occur. Endemism is quite a common phenomenon on this mountain: a plant species being strictly endemic to Mt. Ghiona: Arenaria gionaea; another 10 other species that occur on Mt. Ghiona all distributed in mountains of Central Greece, 14 species distributed in Central & South Greece, 13 species with a wider distribution in Central Greece, Peloponnisos, Crete, Epiros, and Macedonia, 7 species rare in Greece, and five species of W. Asia whose distributions reach Greece.

4.2 Quality and importance

The presence of a great number of endemic or important species (e.g., Arenaria gionaea, etc.) in the mountain range of Ghiona, especially in the rocky formations of its summits and the steep slopes of the ravines, makes the area of great ecological importance. This is also confirmed by the rediscovery of Solenanthus stamineus, a plant species considered almost extinct from Europe, as it was not found on Mt. Chelmos during recent years, although it was found recently on Mt. Killini. Consequently, measures must be taken for the protection and conservation of this species. The following species have been allocated motivation D for the following reasons: Euphorbia capitulata, a rare species endemic to the Balkan peninsula; Cynoglottis barrelieri subsp. serpentinicola, a mountainous plant of rocky places distributed on the Mts. of Sterea Ellada, N Pindhos and North Cental in Greece, but also in Yugoslavia and SC Anatolia, which is included in the IUCN Red Data Book within the category "Rare"; Arabis bryoides, which is rare and occurs only in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia. Moreover to the above mentioned taxa incorporated in Motivation D, some comments must be made on the geographical distribution of the rest species which belong to the following categories: a) Balkan endemics: Poa thessala, Minuartia stellata, Acer heldreichi, Dianthus integer subsp. minutiflorus, Arabis bryoides, Arenaria conferta subsp. conferta, Crocus veluchensis, Cirsium appendiculatum, Verbascum graecum b) Species distributed in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia: Acantholimon echinus subsp. echinus, Saxifraga sibthorpii. c) The remaining species present an interesting distribution range. Some of the above mentioned species are incorporated in one of the IUCN Red Data Book categories (WCMC 1993) : Allium phtioticum (R), Aquilegia ottonis subsp. ottonis (R), Astragalus lacteus (R), Convolvulus libanoticus (R), Solenanthus stamineus (nt). Concerning the vertebrate fauna (excluding birds), some of the species recorded in this site are listed in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/E.E.C (see section 3.2). The wolf Canis lupus, which is a priority species of this Directive, is present in the extended forest of the northern Gkiona mountain crest that connects the mountains of eastern central Greece with the Pindos mountain range, and permits these animals to move from one area to another. The special ecological significance of this site is also evident by the existence of the Chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica, in the cliffs of the alpine zone. It is necessary to mention that this taxon is known to occur on only 10 mountains of central and northern Greece.The wolf and the chamois are also threatened species in Greece, placed in the threat category "Vulnerable" and "Rare" respectively, according to the Red Data Book; both animals are also evaluated by the Bern Convention.The quality of the site is strenghtened by the presence of some Other and Greek Important vertebrate species (section 3.3). The toad Bufo viridis and the colubrid snake Coronella austriaca are additionally marked with D since they are mentioned by the CORINE-Biotopes Project. The Wild Boar is indicated with D since one of its southernmost Greek populations lives in this site. From a zoological point of view, it is necessary to focus on the following:a) The occurrence of the largest Chamois flock.b) The permanent presence of the wolf. This fact is significant since the species is becoming extinct. Greece is one of the only three European countries maintaining viable wolf populations, but of unknown size.c) The distribution areas of the Roe Deer, Wild Boar and Chamois show their southernmost limits in this site. For the Chamois this site is the southernmost in Europe.d) The fact that Gkiona is an EC Important Bird Area. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation C is protected by the Bern Convention. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 and one of them by the IUCN Red List.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

No information provided


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR95Rikas-Gourlomyta-Gkiona (Prosiliou)*13.81
GR95Lefkaditiou (Sykeas)*13.12
GR95Dasiko symplegma NA Gkionas (Vounichoras-Amfissas-Agias Efthymias)*0.01

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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