Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:1996-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR24Sterea Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
4060  info      296.852  0.00   
4090  info      4654.5  0.00   
6220  info  X     92.7511  0.00   
6230  info  X     0.559242  0.00   
8140  info      140.66  0.00   
8210  info      537.99  0.00   
8310  info      3.00           
9340  info      55.2738  0.00   
9530  info  X     47.5572  0.00   
9560  info  X     399.701  0.00   
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
M1308Barbastella barbastellus         
A1193Bombina variegata    10  grids1x1   
P1605Bupleurum capillare    4531  4531 
M1352Canis lupus         
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Abies cephalonica                   
Achillea umbellata                   
Agabus bipustulatus                   
Allium parnassicum                   
Alyssum gustavssonii                   
Anthocharis damone                   
Aquilegia ottonis ssp. ottonis                   
Asperula boissieri                   
Asperula lutea                   
Astragalus apollineus                   
Astragalus hellenicus                   
Astragalus sempervirens ssp. cephalonicus                   
Beta nana                   
Bolanthus chelmicus ssp.chelmicus                   
Bolanthus thessalus                   
Bolanthus thymifolius                   
Campanula aizoon ssp. aizoon                   
Campanula radicosa                   
Campanula rupicola                   
Campanula topaliana ssp. delphica                   
Carcharodus flocciferus                   
Carum heldreichii                   
Centaurea musarum                   
Cerastium candidissimum                   
Cirsium heldreichii                   
Colchicum boissieri                   
Convolvulus mairei                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
Corydalis parnassica                   
Crocus hadriaticus                   
Cyaniris helena                   
Dianthus biflorus                   
Dianthus haematocalyx ssp. ventricosus                   
6138Dolichophis caspius                   
6138Dolichophis caspius                   
6138Dolichophis caspius                   
Draba lacaitae                   
Draba parnassica                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
Edraianthus parnassicus                   
Epipactis greuteri                   
1327Eptesicus serotinus                   
1327Eptesicus serotinus                   
1327Eptesicus serotinus                   
Erodium chrysanthum                   
Erysimum parnassi                   
Euphorbia orphanidis                   
Genista parnassica                   
Geocaryum parnassicum                   
Geocaryum pumilum                   
Gomphus vulgatissimus                   
Gypsophila nana                   
Heodes alciphron                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
1203Hyla arborea                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
Iolana iolas                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
1263Lacerta viridis                   
Laserpitium pseudomeum                   
Lycaeides argyrognomon                   
Lysimachia serpyllifolia                   
Minuartia confusa                   
Nepeta parnassica                   
1312Nyctalus noctula                   
1312Nyctalus noctula                   
1312Nyctalus noctula                   
Odontites linkii ssp. linkii                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
1269Ophisaurus apodus                   
Pieris ergane                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
Plebejus pylaon                   
5011Plecotus kolombatovici                   
5011Plecotus kolombatovici                   
5011Plecotus kolombatovici                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
Rhamnus sibthorpianus                   
Rindera graeca                   
2351Salamandra salamandra                   
2351Salamandra salamandra                   
Saturnia pyri                   
1342Sciurus vulgaris                   
1342Sciurus vulgaris                   
Sedum apoleipon                   
Seseli parnassicum                   
Silene auriculata                   
Silene barbeyana                   
Silene guicciardii                   
Stachys swainsonii ssp. swainsonii                   
Strymonidia w-album                   
Thamnosciadium junceum                   
Thersamonia thetis                   
Trifolium parnassii                   
Trinia frigida                   
Triturus vulgaris                   
Triturus vulgaris                   
Verbascum speciosum ssp. megaphlomos                   
Veronica thymifolia                   
Viola graeca                   
Viola poetica                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
Zygaena filipendulae                   
Zygaena lonicerae                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The site extents within three prefectures, Voiotia, Fthiotida and Fokida. It comprises the National Park of Parnassos with one part in Voiotia and the rest in Fokida, the south-east parts of the mountain and the aesthetic forest of Tithorea, situated in Fthoiotida. The archaeological site of the Delfoi Oracle (Manteio ton Delfon) has also been included in the site. The predominate climate is continental with a relatively cool yet dry summer period, rainy autumn and heavy winter, the latter lasting for many months.The highest rainfall occurs in November with August being the dryest month. The mean annual rainfall is about 1000 mm. There is also a considerable occurrence of hail storms which cause damages to the cultivations and the breeding animals. For at least two months per year, the high peaks of the mountain and definitely the National Park are covered by snow, which lasts from December until March and can reach up to 4 m above ground. At the subalpine zone, the snow goes on melting until the middle of June. The substrate consists of calcareous deposits of various age periods. The aesthetic forest of Tithorea is situated on the north-east side of Parnassos and over the homonymous village. Its altitude ranges from 500m up to 1200m above sea level. Its geomorphology is interesting, with karstic caves and palaeontological rocks. The National Park of Parnassos does not include the highest peaks of the mountain (e.g. Liakoura, Gerontovrachos, etc.). Setting off from the lowest altitude of the site (500 m) and reaching up to 800 m, the sclerophyllous evergreen-broadleaved formations prevail. As the altitude increases, there is a transition towards the montane conifers. There, the predominate forest species is Abies cephalonica (Corine 91 code 42.18, a habitat type not included in Annex I), forming pure extensive stands. Some strands of Pinus pallasiana ssp. nigra can also be observed. In certain spots, the forest is being interrupted by smaller or larger gaps covered by shrubs. It should be noted that the proposed sites of Parnassos and Giona are neighbouring. NOTE ON BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGION: Parnassos mountain (Liakoura 2457 m etc), characterized by Greek fir forest and by mixed forest of Greek fir and Quercus frainetto and by Daphno-Festucetalia, could be considered part of the continental biogeographic region.

4.2 Quality and importance

The quality and importance of the site under consideration is based on the ecological and aesthetic value of its natural elements -especially on its biodiversity- and in the cultural value of its archaeological and historical elements. From an ecological point of view, a variety of vegetation types, which are of excellent structure, are maintained and among them there exist special priority habitat types. This, in conjuction with its interesting geomorphology, make the area remarkably rich in flora and fauna. It has high alpine pastures, bare rocks and scree, and impressive forests, especially the oak forests forests and the endemic fir forest. The National Park of Parnassos was established in 1938 and is the second Greek National Park -the first being Mount Olympos. Its core coincides with a Special Protection Area (SPA), according to the Bird’s Directive. The aesthetic forest of Tithorea has been reported as being considerably rich in terms of flora and fauna, while its karstic formations and caves add to its attractions. The very famous -at a worldwide scale- archaeological site of the Delfoi Oracle (Manteio ton Delfon) has also been included in the proposed site, as it has been thoroughly studied in terms of floral and faunal species’ presence and thus contains some of the most significant species reported. The preservation of Delfoi, even in the form of a natural reserve, is suggested not only for the conservation of the important plant and animal taxa but for its ecotouristic attraction as well. The whole area is particularly important for birds of prey, woodpeckers and alpine birds. Many birds of those reported from the site are listed on Annex I of Council Directive 79/409/EEC, whereas the rest species of birds are being protected by International Conventions. Two of the latter, namely Columba oenas and Coturnix coturnix, are included in the National Red Data List. Some mammals, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates and plants (Paeonia parnassica and Bupleurum capillare) are listed on Annex II of Council Directive 92/43/EEC. Apart from the bird species referred to above, specific species of mammals (Dryomis nitedula wingei and Spalax leucodon) are also included in the National Red Data List. The site hosts many species of invertebrates, many of them endemic, and many endemic species of plants. OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION D Plants: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993): Alyssum doerfleri (rare), Genista parnassica (Rare), Astragalus lacteus (Rare), Seseli parnassicum (Rare), Athamanta densa (Rare), Beta nana (Rare), Silene barbeyana (Rare), Rindera graeca (Rare), Campanula rupicola (Rare), Omphalodes luciliae ssp. Scopulorum (Vulnerable), Silene guicciardii (Indeterminate), Stachys swainsonii swainsonii (Rare), Poa trichophylla (Rare), Campanula aizoon ssp. Aizooides (Vulnerable), Erodium chrysanthum (Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993), also includes the species Euphorbia orphanidis (Rare), Centaurea musarum (Rare), Abies cephalonica (Rare), Galium asparagifolium (Indeternminate).Geranium humbertii, Lactuca intricata, Helictotrichon aetolicum, Scutellaria rupestris ssp. Parnassica , Acer opalus ssp. Hyrcanum var. reginae-amaliae are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).The species O. luciliae scopulorum, Erodium chrysanthum, Aquilegia ottonis ssp. Ottonis, and Campanula aizoon ssp. Aizooides are included in the Coreine Checklist of threatened plants. The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) also protects the species Viola poetica, Veronica erinoides, Veronica thymifolia.Pinguicula crystallina ssp. Hirtiflora is protected by the Bern Convention (1992) (cited on the list as P. crystallina, possibly referring to P. crystallina ssp. Crystallina) as well as Asperula lutea, Anthemis spruneri, Cirsium herdreichi, and Sesleria vaginalis.Minuartia stellata (an endemic of Greece & S. Albania). Scutellaria orientalis ssp. Alpina and Campanula trichocalycina (at scattered locations) are rare, in GreecePoa thessala, Acer heldreichii, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. Bulgarica, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. Pindicola, Carum heldreichii, Taraxacum gracilens , Campanula spatulata ssp. Spatulata , Sesleria tenerrima, Arabis bryoides, Arenaria conferta ssp. Conferta, Crocus veluchensis, , Verbascum graecum, Dianthus viscidus, Astragalus creticus ssp. Rumelicus , Lilium chalcedonicum, Silene radicosa ssp. Radicosa, Minuartia stellata, Malcolmia orsiniana ssp. Angulifolia, Dianthus viscidus, Rhamnus saxatilis ssp. Prunifolius, Dianthus integer ssp. Minutiflorus, Geocaryum pindicolum, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Hieracium parnassi , Sesleria tener rima, Rumex kerneri, Sideritis raeseri ssp. Raeseri (=Sideritis sicula ssp. Raeseri), Cerastium decalvans, Silene caesia, Taraxacum gracilens, Crataegus heldreichii, Crocus sieberi ssp. Sublimis and Carum graecum ssp. Graecum are endemic to the Balkan peninsula. Carlina frigida is a species occurring in Greece and possibly extending to Albania. Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. Heldreichii is endemic to Greece and Albania. Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania) Galium incanum ssp. Incanum is a species with distribution in Greece, Anatolia. Erigeron epiroticus is a species occurring in the S.W. part of the Balkan peninsula and locally in Italy. Acantholimon echinus ssp. Echinus is a species with distribution in Greece and W Anatolia. Amelanchier ovalis ssp. Cretica is a species with distribution in Sicily and Greece. Astragalus thracicus ssp. Parnassi is a plant with distribution in Sterea Ellada, Thessalia, Samos, occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece. Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a rather rare plant with scattered localities in Greece (distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy). Festuca polita occurs only in W. Anatolia out of Greece. Geranium macrostylum is a species with East Mediterranean distribution occurring in Albania, S former Jugoslavia, W & C Anatolia, Greece. Lamium garganicum ssp. Garganicum is a species with distribution in Distribution in S & C Greece and S Italy. Ornithogalum refractum is species occurring in SE Europe, Anatolia and Caucasus, obviously rare in Greece. Scutellaria rupestris ssp. Adenotricha is almost confined to Greece (just extending to S Albania). Silene marschalli is a species of SW Asia occurring only on Parnassos in Greece and Europe. Vertebrates: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81): Dryomys nitedula wingei, Sciurus vulgaris, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca, Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus alpestris (including subspecies). The species Dryomys nitedula wingei, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca are also considered species of Community importance, included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC. Invertebrates: The following species are considered in need of protection in Europe (Legakis, 1995): Carcharodus flocciferous (Rare), Iolana iolas (Rare), Styrmonidia w-alba (Vulnerable), Thersmonia thetis (Endangered). Parnaasius apollo is considered an endangered species in Europe and is protected by international conventions (Bernn, CITES) as well as by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), and included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as «Rare». The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) protects the species Leptidea duponcheli, Cyaniris helena, Hipparchia aristaeus and Thersmonia thetis.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

1) Adamakopoulos T., Sfikas G. & Hatzirvassanis B. 1988. Axiologisi kai diacheirisi tou oikosystimatos tis Gionas (Evaluation and management of the Giona ecosystem). Kinisi Prostasias Ethnikon Drymon (Movement for the protection of the National Forests).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR12Periastiko dasos Tithoreas Fthiotidas*0.88
GR95Asprochoma-Psilo-Prontoli-Kelari (Arachovas)*24.43

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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