Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2002-10
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/6-9-2010 (OJ 1495 B)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]

No information provided

2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR24Sterea Ellada

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA402Accipiter brevipes          DD 
BA168Actitis hypoleucos          DD 
BA223Aegolius funereus          DD 
BA247Alauda arvensis          DD 
BA247Alauda arvensis          DD 
BA255Anthus campestris          DD 
BA226Apus apus          DD 
BA215Bubo bubo          DD 
BA087Buteo buteo          DD 
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus          DD 
BA080Circaetus gallicus          DD 
BA082Circus cyaneus          DD     
BA083Circus macrourus          DD     
BA113Coturnix coturnix          DD 
BA113Coturnix coturnix          DD 
BA738Delichon urbicum (urbica)          DD   
BA239Dendrocopos leucotos          DD 
BA236Dryocopus martius          DD 
BA379Emberiza hortulana          DD 
BA100Falco eleonorae          DD     
BA103Falco peregrinus          DD 
BA097Falco vespertinus          DD 
BA251Hirundo rustica          DD   
BA338Lanius collurio          DD 
BA868Leiopicus medius          DD 
BA246Lullula arborea          DD 
BA230Merops apiaster          DD 
BA260Motacilla flava          DD 
BA337Oriolus oriolus          DD 
BA094Pandion haliaetus          DD     
BA072Pernis apivorus          DD 
BA234Picus canus          DD 
BA210Streptopelia turtur          DD   
BA440Sylvia rueppelli          DD 
BA228Tachymarptis melba          DD 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A207Columba oenas                   
A207Columba oenas                   
A207Columba oenas                   
A687Columba palumbus palumbus                   
A687Columba palumbus palumbus                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Ghiona is the highest mountain in South Greece (2510 m) and the fifth highest in Greece.From a geological point of view, Mt. Ghiona belongs to the geotectonic zone of "Parnasos-Ghiona" having limestone as the main geological substrate (the total thickness of the limestone layer is estimated to be about 1800 m) and only in some parts of the surface flysch and conglomerate deposits occur. The main element of the above series is the existence of many karstic formations and three horizons of bauxite intercalating in the continuous limestone series.From a geomorphological point of view, there are three main mountain crests converging to the highest peak (pyramid). The most important of these is the one to the south with a length of 13km. On both sides of the crest a ravine occurs, Reka to the left and Lazorema to the right. This whole geological feature posseses significant ecological importance. The ravine of Reka (12 km long) is characterized by large steep slopes, and seasonal rushing water, whereas Lazorema is 4 km long with high slopes (1000-1200m alt.). In addition to these, many plateaux and conglomerate areas exist.In the above geological substrates there is a variety of vegetation types with dominant species being Abies cephalonica extending from 800-1800 m altitude. In the lower areas there are formations of evergreen broadleaved species, with main representatives being Quercus coccifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, while in some areas there are individuals of Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia. Apart from these taxa, in some parts the north-west mountain range small formations of Platanus orientalis and Salix alba occur. Above the limits of the Abies cephalonica forest, grazing areas occur (stepped grasslands). Also Juniperus formations exist, with dominant species being Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina. Finally, in the rocky formations and conglomerates adapted plant associations occur. Endemism is quite a common phenomenon on this mountain: a plant species being strictly endemic to Mt. Ghiona: Arenaria gionaea; another 10 other species that occur on Mt. Ghiona all distributed in mountains of Central Greece, 14 species distributed in Central & South Greece, 13 species with a wider distribution in Central Greece, Peloponnisos, Crete, Epiros, and Macedonia, 7 species rare in Greece, and five species of W. Asia whose distributions reach Greece.

4.2 Quality and importance

This is an important site for raptors and alpine species. Breeding birds include some of the species in Europe that are restricted (when breeding) to the Eurasian high-montane biome. The presence of a great number of endemic or important species (e.g., Arenaria gionaea, etc.) in the mountain range of Ghiona, especially in the rocky formations of its summits and the steep slopes of the ravines, makes the area of great ecological importance.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

1) (20th April 2015) GBIF Occurrence Download Ch., Chatzinikos E., Kiousis D., Dimou P., Bontzorlos V., Dedousopoulou E., Braziotis S., Xenos A., Stefanou L. Birtsas P., Vlachaki D. and Kontos K. (version Coordinators) 2015. Updated version of the descriptive database of the Natura 2000 network of the Study 9 «Monitoring and Evaluation of Bird Species Conservation Status in Greece» Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Athens, Partnership Consulting Firms" "F.FASOULAS-N.MANTZIOS" EU - RODOULA GEORGE KONSTANTINIDOU - "ATH.TZAKOPOULOS AND Co." EU ", Thessaloniki.3)NATURA 2000 Network descriptive & geographical database (2012).


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR95Lefkaditiou (Sykeas)*27.60
GR95Rikas-Gourlomyta-Gkiona (Prosiliou)*29.05

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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