Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site proposed as SCI:1997-04
Date site confirmed as SCI:2006-09
Date site designated as SAC:2011-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:Law 3937/29-3-11 (OJ 60 A)


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
3290  info      0.00         
4090  info      1181.91  0.00 
5210  info      35.8789  0.00 
8210  info      92.8983  0.00 
8310  info      1.00           
9540  info      0.00         
9560  info  X     44.2456  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
M1308Barbastella barbastellus          DD     
R1279Elaphe quatuorlineata          DD 
R1217Testudo hermanni    101  250 
R1218Testudo marginata          DD 
R6095Zamenis situla          DD 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Abies cephalonica                   
Achillea umbellata                   
Adonis cyllenea                   
Adonis cyllenea                   
1258Algyroides moreoticus                   
1258Algyroides moreoticus                   
1258Algyroides moreoticus                   
1258Algyroides moreoticus                   
Anthemis laconica                   
Arenaria filicaulis ssp. graeca                   
Asperula taygetea                   
Aurinia moreana                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
6997Bufotes viridis                   
1353Canis aureus                     
1353Canis aureus                   
Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta                   
Cerastium candidissimum                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
1283Coronella austriaca                   
Crataegus pycnoloba                   
Draba lacaitae                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
1342Dryomys nitedula                   
Erysimum pectinatum                   
Fritillaria graeca                   
Galium peloponnesiacum                   
6079Hellenolacerta graeca                   
6079Hellenolacerta graeca                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
1251Lacerta trilineata                   
Lilium chalcedonicum                   
Minuartia stellata                   
Peucedanum longifolium                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
Poa thessala                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1254Podarcis peloponnesiaca                   
1254Podarcis peloponnesiaca                   
1254Podarcis peloponnesiaca                   
1254Podarcis peloponnesiaca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
1208Rana graeca                   
Rhamnus sibthorpianus                   
Scrophularia taygetea                   
Sideritis clandestina ssp. cyllenea                   
Silene auriculata                   
Thlaspi graecum                   
Thymus leucotrichus                   
Tulipa orphanidea                   
Valeriana olenaea                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
1295Vipera ammodytes                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The examined mountain extends over the northeastern part of central Peloponnisos and connects the mountains of Zireia on the north, Artemision and Farmakas on the SE and Saitas on the west. The mountain consists of three main branches: a) Mavrovouni or Parnias (1695 m) on the northeastern part, densely forested; b) Mavres Korifes (Apelavron Oros), extending from the highest summit Skipiza (1935 m) eastwards between the lake of Stymfalia and the valley of Skoteini, and c) Skiathis (1777 m) on the southern part, a rocky, steep sloped massif. The largest northern and central part of the mountain consists of deeply karstified limestones belonging to the Tripoli geotectonical zone. Less extended metamorphic schists are also encountered. In the southern part, limestones of the Pindos-zone dominate with local outcrops of cherts and flysch rocks. The highest zone of the mountain includes stony slopes, steep rocky cliffs, and grasslands. The Abies cephalonica forests prefer the northern part of the mountain and altitudes of 1200-1600 m (in some cases, however, Abies are present in altitudes lower than 700m), while the southern part is overgrazed, with scattered Quercus and remnants of maquis or older forests. The summit-chain of Oligyrtos is the water boundary between the basin areas of Feneos (alt.710 m) on the northwest, of the lake of Stymphalia (alt. 600 m) on the northeast, of Alea (alt. 600 m) on the southeast and of Kandila (alt. 630 m) on the south. The main gorges and ravines have a NE-SW direction but they are not very deep. Large springs emerge mainly along the southern boundary of Oligyrtos between limestones and the Kandila plain sediments. The main springs (Kourpa and Sintzi) are connected to a river which flows to the Plaissia sinkhole. In the area of the springs a wetland is formed. Another large spring emerges at the northeastern part of the mountain, at the Lafka area, contributing to the water balance of the lake Stymfalia, which is the most important mountainous wetland of NE Peloponnisos. There is also a large spring on the foothills of Skiathis near the village of Alea, the water of which flows towards the sinkhole of the Alea karstic plain.

4.2 Quality and importance

This region is of great importance, due to the following features: 1) Mt. Oligyrtos is in the central part between the Feneos, Stymfalia and Kantila mountain plains, which are the most important hydrological basins of N Peloponnisos; 2) It is an area of high altitudes and important forests in the northern part, with habitats suitable for plants and animals, and the rocky steep slopes of the crest areas (and not only them) also include habitats which are suitable for rare and endemic plants; 3) Many interesting plant taxa are found in the examined area. From the plants listed in section 3.3, the following taxa - Erysimum pectinatum, Aurinia moreana, Thlaspi graecum, Sideritis clandestina, Scrophularia heterophylla var. taygetea, Valeriana olenaea, Anthemis laconica, Adonis cyllenea - are endemic to Peloponnisos and 10 taxa - Abies cephalonica, Silene auriculata, Cerastium candidissimum, Crataegus pycnoloba, Draba lacaitae, Rhamnus sibthorpianus, Asperula taygetea, Galium peloponnesiacum, Achillea umbellata, Fritillaria graeca- are Greek endemics. Abies cephalonica, Asperula taygeta, Scrophularia taygetes, Valeriana olenaea are classified as "Rare" in the WCMC Plants Database, as well as the IUCN R.D.B. Valeriana olenaea is protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta, Cerastium candidissimum, Crataegus pycnoloba, Draba lacaitae, Erysimum pectinatum, Galium peloponnesiacum, Rhamnus sibthorpianus, Satureja parnassica, Sideritis clandestina, Thlaspi graecum are listed as "Not Threatened" in the WCMC Plants Database, as well as in the IUCN Red Data Book, but they may well be in danger. Achillea umbellata is characterized with "" in the WCMC Plants Database. Adonis cyllenea, characterized as "E" in the WCMC Plants Database, and as "V" in the IUCN RDB, is protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). It was known only from Mt. Killini and was thought to be an extinct species, when it was rediscovered on Mt. Oligyrtos (Parnias) a few years ago. It is elsewhere known only fron one collection from Pontus in NE Turkey but this record requires verification. The protection of this species is of great importance. The plants marked with the letter D in section 3.3 have interesting geographical distribution, such as: a) Arenaria filicaulis subsp. graeca, Minuartia stellata, Scrophularia laciniata, Pedicularis graeca, Campanula spatulata, Lilium chalcedonicum and Poa thessala, which are Balkan endemics, the last two being protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981), while Peucedanum longifolium is distributed in the Balkan peninsula and C Romania; b) Thymus leucotrichus, Tulipa orphanidea are distributed in Greece and Turkey, while Thymus leucotrichus is also distributed in Lebanon -Syria. Tulipa orphanidea and Gallium incanum subsp. incanum are protected by the Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981); If the continuity of the forest is ensured and extended to the southern part of the mountain, as it was in the past, Mt. Oligyrtos may act as the "connecting member" to the extended and important mountainous ecosystems of Mts Kyllini and Chelmos, as well as to that of Mt. Artemisio and Farmakas in the southeast. Thus the living conditions of the forest mammals could be substantially improved, since their very existence depends on the presence of the extended forest ecosystems. 5) The occurrence of many endemic taxa and the diversity of the local fauna are also good indicators of this site's quality. The evaluated vertebrate fauna of this site (excluding birds) consists of several recorded taxa. Some of the reptilian species are mentioned in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC (see section 3.2). As regards the Other Important taxa tabulated in section 3.3, the occurrence of some Greek endemics should be emphasized (motivation B). Áll the animal taxa of sections 3.2, 3.3 are protected by the Bern Convention. For the taxa of the latter two sections, this is indicated by the C motivation. Besides the Bern Convention, the wildcat Felis silvestris is also mentioned by the CITES Convention. Some of the reported animals are also protected by Greek Legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981); these have been allocated the motivation D. Likewise, the same motivation has been allocated to Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Podarcis muralis and Felis silvestris since they are also evaluated by the CORINE-Biotopes Project. The hare Lepus europaeus is marked with motivation D because of its general rarity in Greece due to intensive hunting.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

No information provided


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
GR95Limni Stymfalia - Apelevro oros Dimou Stymfalias Korinthias kai Koinotitas Aleas Argolidas*12.70

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:


6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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