Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name


1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2010-03
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/6-9-2010 (OJ 1495 B)
Date site proposed as SCI:2010-03
Date site confirmed as SCI:2012-01
Date site designated as SAC: No information provided
National legal reference of SAC designation: No information provided


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR42Notio Aigaio

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %) Marine Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      260.369  0.00 
1120  info  X     2603.69  0.00 
1160  info      260.369  0.00 
1170  info      5207.38  0.00 
1240  info      113.121  0.00 
1410  info      0.340689  0.00 
1430  info      1.20459  0.00 
3140  info      0.0784624  0.00 
3170  info  X     0.00         
5210  info      0.00         
5330  info      74.4659  0.00 
5420  info      1507.2  0.00 
6220  info  X     3.62692  0.00 
8210  info      0.00         
8330  info      260.369  0.00 
9320  info      15.6919  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA226Apus apus          DD   
BA087Buteo buteo          DD 
BA447Emberiza caesia          DD 
BA100Falco eleonorae    170  170   
BA251Hirundo rustica          DD   
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii    10  50   
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii          DD 
BA464Puffinus yelkouan    3570  7350   
BA228Tachymarptis melba          DD 
M1349Tursiops truncatus          DD       
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Anchusella variegata                   
Anchusella variegata                   
Balanophyllia europaea                   
Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta                   
Charonia tritonis                   
Conomurex persicus                   
Crocus cartwrightianus                   
Filago cretensis ssp. Cycladum                   
Fritillaria graeca ssp. graeca                   
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. Tuntasia                   
Fritillaria obliqua ssp. Tuntasia                   
Limonium ocymifolium                   
Ophrys heldreichii                   
Ophrys heldreichii                   
Ophrys lutea                   
Ophrys lutea                   
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Paracentrotus lividus                   
Percnon gibbesi                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
1028Pinna nobilis                   
Scrophularia herpetophylla var. herpetophylla                   
Sedum eriocarpum ssp. Delicum                   
Serapias lingua                   
Serapias vomeracea                   
Serapias vomeracea                   
Siganus rivulatus                   
Siganus rivulatus                   
Tenarea tortuosa                   
Tonna galea                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Gyaros is an arid, deserted island in the northern Cyclades, in the central Aegean Sea with a total area of 17,76 square km. This small island of the Aegean Sea served as place of exile for important persons in the early Roman empire. The island was used from the end of World War II until 1974 as an exile island for political dissidents; from 1974 - 2000 the Hellenic government used the island as a target range for the navy. Since then, Gyaros has been open to the public but due to unexploded ammunition still lying around, human presence on the island has remained limited. The site includes the islands of Gyaros and the surrounding marine area of 3 nautical miles from the coastline. Cultivation has been practiced in the past and numerous terraces are found around the hills, nowadays abandoned. The natural vegetation on the island is ranging from prhygana to low and high shrubs (Juniperus spp.). The Gyaros whip snake was considered till recently to be an endemic of Gyaros island. Recent research however suggests that the population of Gyaros has resulted from a translocation of Hierophis viridiflavus from the Italian peninsula. On Gyaros the species has adapted to dry areas with phrygana or maquis. Very little is known on its ecology. The coasts are mostly rocky with chasmophytic and aero-haline vegetation. Sandy beaches with hamophilous communities are formed around Gyaros. Numerous sea caves are formed along the coast of the island. Gyaros is uninhabited. There are no roads or other infrastructure on the island apart from a few abandoned houses and prison shettlements at the east coast. In the marine environment, extended underwater prairies of Posidonia oceanica are present. Among them, reefs and sandbanks, large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis, sponges Axinella spp., sea urchins Centrostephanus longispinus, trumpet tritons Charonia tritonis and the parrotfish Sparisoma cretense have been observed. The invasive green algae Caulerpa racemosa had covered large areas at all depths and among all habitat types.

4.2 Quality and importance

The whole site is of utmost importance for the survival of the Critically Endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). Field surveys carried out in 2004 - 2007, identified throughout the 37 km coastline of Gyaros, eight coastal caves suitable for monk seals; 3 of them were considered to be suitable for resting and pupping, while the other five were considered to be suitable for resting. In October 2007 six newborn pups were recorded inside a cave. This is the highest number of newborn pups recorded simultaneously in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pup counts from 2004 - 2007 recorded an annual birth rate of 7 pups, which is amongst the highest rates recorded in the world. In addition, low human activity in the area over the past years has accounted for a return of the species to occupying open beaches for resting and reproducing. This kind of behaviour, which is considered to be the original behaviour of the species and is rarely observed nowadays due to human disturbance, has never been recorded in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pupping rates and the behaviour of the species indicate the existence of large colony of the species in the area, as well as, the existence of excellent habitat. The terrestrial habitat quality is matched, as indicated by the size of the monk seal population that supports, by the quality of the marine environment.Posidonia beds are abundant in the littoral zone, hosting a rich ichthyofauna. Large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis have also been observed. 170 pairs of Eleonora's falcon breed on the rocky cliffs of the island, while there are strong indications that Cory's shearwaters and Audouin's gulls also breed. In addition, large groups of European Storm-petrels have been sighted in the area, which could indicate that the species breeds here, although this has not been verified yet.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

-N2000 Network descriptive & geographical database 2012 -Vlachos Ch., Chatzinikos E., Kiousis D., Dimou P., Bontzorlos V., Dedousopoulou E., Braziotis S., Xenos A., Stefanou L. Birtsas P., Vlachaki D. and Kontos K. 2015 Updated version of the des. DB of the N2000 network of the Study 9 Monitoring and Evaluation of Bird Species Conservation Status in Greece. Ministry of Environment Energy and Climate Change Athens, Partnership Consulting Firms F.FASOULAS-N.MANTZIOS RODOULA GEORGE KONSTANTINIDOU ATH.TZAKOPOULOS AND Co., Thessaloniki. -WWF Greece 2018 Final technical & financial report covering all project activities 1/7/2013–31/3/2018 CYCLADES LIFE Integrated Monk Seal Conservation in N. Cyclades LIFE 12/NAT/GR/000688. WWF Greece, MΟm/Hellenic Society for the Study & Protection of the Monk Seal, the Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Energy & Climate Change, the Decentralized Admin. Authority of the Aegean, the Development Corporation of Local Authorities of Cyclades S.A., the Harokopio Un. of Athens & Tethys Research Institute. -Γ. Κατσαδωράκης 2017 Η ορνιθοπανίδα της Γυάρου 2ο έτος μελέτης 2016-17 & τελ. αναφορά -Γ. Κατσαδωράκης 2015 Μελέτη της ορνιθοπανίδας της Γυάρου WWF Ελλάς -Fric J. D. Portolou 2016 Μελέτη του πληθυσμού Μύχων Puffinus yelkouan στην περιοχή της Γυάρου. Ετήσια αναφορά 2015 NCC Ε.Π.Ε. & Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρία -Fric J, Πορτόλου Δ, Ευαγγελίδης Α, Δημαλέξης Τ, Παπαδάς Χ, Ι. Νικολάου 2019 Μελέτη του πληθυσμού Μύχων στην περιοχή της Γυάρου. Συγκεντρωτική αναφορά 2015-18 NCC Ε.Π.Ε. & Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρία.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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