Database release:
SDF
NATURA 2000 - STANDARD DATA FORM

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. SITE IDENTIFICATION

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1.1 Type

C

1.2 Site code

GR4220033

1.3 Site name

NISOS GYAROS KAI THALASSIA ZONI

1.4 First Compilation date

2009-11

1.5 Update date

2016-12

1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος και Ενέργειας
Address:               
Email:

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2010-03
National legal reference of SPA designationJMD HP 37338/1807/E103/6-9-2010 (OJ 1495 B)
Date site proposed as SCI:2010-03
Date site confirmed as SCI:2012-01
Date site designated as SAC: No data
National legal reference of SAC designation: No data

2. SITE LOCATION

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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:

Longitude:24.710300
Latitude:37.607500

2.2 Area [ha]

26036.9100

2.3 Marine area [%]

93.2000

2.4 Sitelength [km]:

0.00

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
GR42Notio Aigaio

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)

3. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1110  info      260.369  0.00 
1120  info  X     2603.69  0.00 
1160  info      260.369  0.00 
1170  info      5207.38  0.00 
1240  info      113.121  0.00 
1410  info      0.340689  0.00 
1430  info      1.20459  0.00 
3140  info      0.0784624  0.00 
3170  info  X     0.00         
5210  info      0.00         
5330  info      74.4659  0.00 
5420  info      1507.2  0.00 
6220  info  X     3.62692  0.00 
8210  info      0.00         
8330  info      260.369  0.00 
9320  info      15.6919  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

4. SITE DESCRIPTION

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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover
N0193.00
N040.50
N050.50
N060.00
N086.00

Total Habitat Cover

100

Other Site Characteristics

Gyaros is an arid, deserted island in the northern Cyclades, in the central Aegean Sea with a total area of 17,76 square km. This small island of the Aegean Sea served as place of exile for important persons in the early Roman empire. The island was used from the end of World War II until 1974 as an exile island for political dissidents; from 1974 - 2000 the Hellenic government used the island as a target range for the navy. Since then, Gyaros has been open to the public but due to unexploded ammunition still lying around, human presence on the island has remained limited. The site includes the islands of Gyaros and the surrounding marine area of 3 nautical miles from the coastline. Cultivation has been practiced in the past and numerous terraces are found around the hills, nowadays abandoned. The natural vegetation on the island is ranging from prhygana to low and high shrubs (Juniperus spp.). The Gyaros whip snake was considered till recently to be an endemic of Gyaros island. Recent research however suggests that the population of Gyaros has resulted from a translocation of Hierophis viridiflavus from the Italian peninsula. On Gyaros the species has adapted to dry areas with phrygana or maquis. Very little is known on its ecology. The coasts are mostly rocky with chasmophytic and aero-haline vegetation. Sandy beaches with hamophilous communities are formed around Gyaros. Numerous sea caves are formed along the coast of the island. Gyaros is uninhabited. There are no roads or other infrastructure on the island apart from a few abandoned houses and prison shettlements at the east coast. In the marine environment, extended underwater prairies of Posidonia oceanica are present. Among them, reefs and sandbanks, large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis, sponges Axinella spp., sea urchins Centrostephanus longispinus, trumpet tritons Charonia tritonis and the parrotfish Sparisoma cretense have been observed. The invasive green algae Caulerpa racemosa had covered large areas at all depths and among all habitat types.

4.2 Quality and importance

The whole site is of utmost importance for the survival of the Critically Endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). Field surveys carried out in 2004 - 2007, identified throughout the 37 km coastline of Gyaros, eight coastal caves suitable for monk seals; 3 of them were considered to be suitable for resting and pupping, while the other five were considered to be suitable for resting. In October 2007 six newborn pups were recorded inside a cave. This is the highest number of newborn pups recorded simultaneously in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pup counts from 2004 - 2007 recorded an annual birth rate of 7 pups, which is amongst the highest rates recorded in the world. In addition, low human activity in the area over the past years has accounted for a return of the species to occupying open beaches for resting and reproducing. This kind of behaviour, which is considered to be the original behaviour of the species and is rarely observed nowadays due to human disturbance, has never been recorded in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pupping rates and the behaviour of the species indicate the existence of large colony of the species in the area, as well as, the existence of excellent habitat. The terrestrial habitat quality is matched, as indicated by the size of the monk seal population that supports, by the quality of the marine environment.Posidonia beds are abundant in the littoral zone, hosting a rich ichthyofauna. Large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis have also been observed. 170 pairs of Eleonora's falcon breed on the rocky cliffs of the island, while there are strong indications that Cory's shearwaters and Audouin's gulls also breed. In addition, large groups of European Storm-petrels have been sighted in the area, which could indicate that the species breeds here, although this has not been verified yet.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
HC03.03b
MD03.03b
ME01.03b
LF02b
MF02.01.02b
HF02.02.01o
MF02.03i
MF02.03.03b
MF03.02.05b
MF05.01b
LF05.04b
MF05.05b
LF06i
MG01.01.01b
MG01.04.03b
LG05i
LG05.02b
HG05.07b
MH01b
MH03.01b
LH03.03b
MI01b
MI02b
MJ03.01b
ML05b
HM01.01b
MM01.07b
MM02.01b
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

5. SITE PROTECTION STATUS

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6. SITE MANAGEMENT

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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes
No, but in preparation
X
No

 

7. MAP OF THE SITE

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SITE DISPLAY