Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Gorski kotar i sjeverna Lika

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development - MESD

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2013-07
National legal reference of SPA designationRegulation on ecological network and responsible public institutions for site management, Official Gazette 80/19


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
HR03Jadranska Hrvatska

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Alpine (0.00 %) Mediterranean (0.00 %) Continental (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA168Actitis hypoleucos    10   
BA223Aegolius funereus    180  260   
BA229Alcedo atthis     
BA109Alectoris graeca    100  150   
BA255Anthus campestris    1000  1300   
BA091Aquila chrysaetos     
BA222Asio flammeus     
BA104Bonasa bonasia    700  1300   
BA215Bubo bubo    15  20   
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus    80  150   
BA030Ciconia nigra     
BA080Circaetus gallicus     
BA082Circus cyaneus    10  20   
BA122Crex crex    50  80  cmales   
BA239Dendrocopos leucotos    500  900   
BA238Dendrocopos medius    15  25   
BA429Dendrocopos syriacus           
BA236Dryocopus martius    150  350   
BA379Emberiza hortulana    150  300   
BA103Falco peregrinus     
BA321Ficedula albicollis    2000  7000   
BA320Ficedula parva    30  60   
BA217Glaucidium passerinum    80  140   
BA078Gyps fulvus           
BA338Lanius collurio    5000  7000   
BA339Lanius minor    25  50   
BA246Lullula arborea    400  600   
BA072Pernis apivorus    10  25   
BA241Picoides tridactylus    200  450   
BA234Picus canus    370  530   
BA220Strix uralensis    250  350   
BA307Sylvia nisoria    150  250   
BA108Tetrao urogallus    15  30  cmales   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
A070Mergus merganser    -1  -1             
A155Scolopax rusticola    -1  -1             
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

The area includes extensive mountain area of Gorski Kotar and North Lika with prevailing forest habitats. This is the largest forest complex of Alpine region in Croatia and one of the largest in the whole region. Dominant habitat are mixed beech-fir forests. Other forest habitats include black pine forests, hop-hornbeam forest, dwarf pine scrub and submediterranean forests and scrub. Cliffs, rocky habitats and meadows are also abundant. Partly protected: National Park Risnjak, Strict reserve Bijele i Samarske stijene, Special reserve of forest vegetation Debela lipa-Veliki Rebar, Park forests Japlenški vrh and Golubinjak, Significant landscapes Vražji prolaz-Zeleni vir, Klek and Petehovac, Geomorphological natural monument Lokvarka. Lithostratigraphic units represented in this area are rudist limestones (cenomanian-maastricht - K21-6), limestone and dolomite (lower cretaceous - K1), limestones and dolomites (upper jurassic - J3), limestone and dolomite (lower jurassic-J1), dolomite (upper noricum, ret - T22-3). Predominantly clastic sediments (carbon, perm - C, P) and flisch sediments (middle and upper eocene - E2, 3). Soils: brown soil on limestone, rendzina soils on dolomite and limestone and limestone and dolomite black soil. Gorski Kotar is a karst plain, about 35 km wide, and average high 800 m; ountain groups are extended in the Dinaric direction, and they are separated by karst valleys and fields. North Lika has a complex structure morphogenetic types of of relief and complex orographic structure as a result of dynamic geotectonic relations, hydrogeological conditions, climate and anthropogenic influences.

4.2 Quality and importance

- Information on birds population sizes was provided by the Institute for Ornithology (Zavod za ornitologiju, 2013). Numbers presented refer to estimations or exact data based as much as possible on recent surveys (data provided by the Institute staff and their field-work associates) - SPA Gorski kotar i sjeverna Lika is, along with the SPA Velebit, the most important site in Croatia for forest hole-nesting species: Aegolius funereus (45% of national population), Glaucidium passerinum (53%), Strix uralensis (35,7 %), Dendrocopos leucotos (41,7%) and Picoides tridactylus (40%) - SPA Gorski kotar i sjeverna Lika is, along with the SPA Velebit, the most important site in Croatia for Tetrao urogallus (30% of national population) and Bonasa bonasia (35%) - SPA Velebit is the most important site in Croatia for Emberiza hortulana (43% of national population) - SPA Velebit is, along with the SPA Kvarnerski otoci, the most important site in Croatia for Aquila chrysaetos (20% of national population) and also important for Circaetus gallicus (4,5%) and Falco peregrinus (3,8%) - National Red List species Mergus merganser breeds along the Krka river (transboundary river with Slovenia). Ornithological survey in 2013 registered several breeding families but it remains to be confirmed whether actual nesting occurs on Croatian or Slovenian side, or both (Radović Dragan, Croatian Ornithological Society, pers. comm.). In Croatia this species nests only on the coastal cliffs of Peruča lake in SPA Cetina

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Agencija za zaštitu okoliša: CORINE Land Cover Hrvatska. Baza podataka CLC 2006 Ćiković, D., Barišić, S., Tutiš, V. & Kralj, J. (2008): Woodpeckers in the Croatian Karst Mountains. Bird Census News 2008: 21/1. Download pdf from Mandić, K. (2014). Završni Izvještaj monitoringa Kosca (Crex crex) na području naselja Klana, Gorski kotar 2014. Matulji Mikulić, K., Budinski, I., Lucić, V., Katanović, I., Hudina T., Zec, M. (2014): Konačno izvješće za monitoring nacionalne populacije surog orla (Aquila chrysaetos). Izvješće za DZZP. Udruga BIOM, Zagreb 24 str. Radović, D., Kralj, J., Tutiš, V., Radović, J. i Topić, R. (2005): Nacionalna ekološka mreža – Važna područja za ptice u Hrvatskoj. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Tutiš, V., Kralj, J., Radović, D., Ćiković, D. i Barišić, S. (2013): Crvena knjiga ptica Republike Hrvatske. Ministarstvo zaštite okoliša i prirode, Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Tutiš V., Radović D., Ćiković D., Barišić S. & Kralj J. (2009) Distribution, density and habitat relationships of the Ural Owl Strix uralensis macroura in Croatia. ARDEA 97 (4): 563-570 Udruga Jezero (2013): Monitoring kosca (Crex crex) na području Lič polja i području Stari Laz – Ravna Gora na području Gorskog Kotara u 2013. g. – stručni rad. Konačno izvješće za DZZP. Tutiš, V., Barišić, S., Kralj, J., Ćiković, D. (2014): Monitoring jastrebače Strix uralensis na području Velike kapele u 2014. godini. Konačno izvješće. Zavod za ornitologiju HAZU. Zagreb, 20 str. Izvješće za DZZP Zavod za ornitologiju (Sanja Barišić, Davor Ćiković, Jelena Kralj, Goran Sušić,Vesna Tutiš), Dragan Radović, Ivan Budinski, Robert Crnković, Antun Delić, Dubravko Dender, Vlatka Dumbović, Ivan Darko Grlica, Bariša Ilić, Luka Jurinović, Davor Krnjeta, Krešimir Leskovar, Duje Lisičić, Ivica Lolić, Gordan Lukač. Kristijan Mandić, Krešimir Mikulić, Tibor Mikuska, Gvido Piasevoli, Andrej Radalj, Zlatko Ružanović, Vlatka Šćetarić, Mirko Šetina, Adrian Tomik (2013): Procjene brojnosti za SPA područja. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Lucić, V., Katanović, I., Kapelj, S. (2019): Izvještaj o kretanjima bjeloglavih supova (Gyps fulvus) unutar područja očuvanja značajnih za ptice Gorski kotar i sjeverna Lika (HR1000019) te Velebit (HR1000022). Udruga Biom. Zagreb.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)