Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Vransko jezero i Jasen

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development - MESD

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2013-07
National legal reference of SPA designationRegulation on ecological network and responsible public institutions for site management, Official Gazette 80/19


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
HR03Jadranska Hrvatska

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

No habitat types are reported for the site

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA293Acrocephalus melanopogon    500  600   
BA229Alcedo atthis          DD 
BA109Alectoris graeca    15  20   
BA054Anas acuta    400   
BA054Anas acuta    110   
BA056Anas clypeata    120   
BA056Anas clypeata    15   
BA052Anas crecca          DD 
BA052Anas crecca    50  623   
BA050Anas penelope          DD 
BA050Anas penelope    100  643   
BA053Anas platyrhynchos          DD 
BA053Anas platyrhynchos    100  700   
BA055Anas querquedula    20  150   
BA051Anas strepera          DD 
BA051Anas strepera    62   
BA043Anser anser    14   
BA255Anthus campestris           
BA029Ardea purpurea    10   
BA024Ardeola ralloides          DD 
BA059Aythya ferina          DD 
BA059Aythya ferina    20  2950   
BA061Aythya fuligula          DD 
BA061Aythya fuligula    28   
BA060Aythya nyroca    72   
BA021Botaurus stellaris    cmales   
BA021Botaurus stellaris          DD 
BA021Botaurus stellaris          DD 
BA215Bubo bubo     
BA067Bucephala clangula    25   
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla           
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus    30  60   
BA196Chlidonias hybridus          DD 
BA197Chlidonias niger    120   
BA080Circaetus gallicus     
BA081Circus aeruginosus     
BA081Circus aeruginosus          DD 
BA082Circus cyaneus     
BA084Circus pygargus     
BA036Cygnus olor          DD 
BA036Cygnus olor          DD 
BA027Egretta alba          DD 
BA027Egretta alba    10  15   
BA027Egretta alba     
BA026Egretta garzetta          DD 
BA026Egretta garzetta     
BA098Falco columbarius     
BA125Fulica atra          DD 
BA125Fulica atra    40000  195000   
BA153Gallinago gallinago    15  58   
BA153Gallinago gallinago    10  30   
BA002Gavia arctica    13         
BA001Gavia stellata           
BA131Himantopus himantopus    13   
BA022Ixobrychus minutus    100  150   
BA022Ixobrychus minutus          DD 
BA338Lanius collurio    200  300         
BA339Lanius minor     
BA156Limosa limosa    27   
BA246Lullula arborea           
BA272Luscinia svecica          DD 
BA152Lymnocryptes minimus          DD 
BA069Mergus serrator          DD 
BA160Numenius arquata     
BA160Numenius arquata    40   
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax          DD 
BA393Phalacrocorax pygmeus    11  45   
BA393Phalacrocorax pygmeus    250  800   
BA151Philomachus pugnax    392   
BA034Platalea leucorodia          DD 
BA032Plegadis falcinellus    36   
BA120Porzana parva          DD 
BA120Porzana parva          DD 
BA120Porzana parva     
BA119Porzana porzana          DD 
BA119Porzana porzana     
BA119Porzana porzana          DD 
BA121Porzana pusilla          DD 
BA121Porzana pusilla     
BA118Rallus aquaticus          DD 
BA118Rallus aquaticus          DD 
BA161Tringa erythropus          DD 
BA166Tringa glareola    50   
BA164Tringa nebularia          DD 
BA162Tringa totanus          DD 
BA142Vanellus vanellus          DD 
BA142Vanellus vanellus          DD 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)

No information provided


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Vransko jezero (Vrana Lake) is the largest natural lake in Croatia, the only one in the coastal part of Croatia, and one of only two larger wetlands in this region (the other being the Neretva Delta). It is located in the central part of the Dalmatian coast, in the vicinity of the town Biograd. The lake represents a geomorphological rarity of our karst region since it is a crypto-depression filled with mild salted water that sustains a specific community of water species. Apart from Jasen area, the area is declared as nature park. It is characterized by a high degree of biological and landscape diversity as it represents an unusual combination of Mediterranean karst and wetland area. It is one of the most important bird habitats in Croatia. The northwestern border of the lake lies in the zone of intensive flooding, providing a habitat for a great number of waterfowl for which reason it has been protected as a special ornithological reserve. Here is also located the largest reed bed area of Vrana Lake, in which Purple Herons and Pygmy Cormorants nest in a mixed colony, making this area a unique bird site of the Adriatic coast. To date 255 bird species have been registered, of which 102 nest here, the rest being migratory species that use the Park area as a resting or wintering place along their migratory routes. Due to 87 wintering bird species with more than 100.000 specimens, the area is one of the most important European wintering sites for waterbirds. More than 140 migratory bird species from Central and North Europe rest here. The daily population in the Park sometimes reaches 1.000.000 birds during autumn migration season, and for this reason this area has been listed as an Important Bird Area of Europe (IBA). The whole Park area has also been declared a RAMSAR site in 2013. Another important biological feature of this area is the diversity of fish, among which Mediterranean subspecies of the Roach should be mentioned. At the Vrana Lake flooded meadows are present in the ornithological reserve, in the narrow belt between wetland vegetation and agricultural land, and larger areas are developed in Jasen area. In wet meadows several species of orchids are recorded and as well as the endemic Illyrian Iris (Iris illyrica). These meadows are the nesting and feeding areas of a large number of bird species during floods or when the water is withdrawn. The main here represented community is a community of thermophilic high wet grasslands Trifolio-Hordeetalia. Lithostratigraphic units represented in this area are: Rudist limestones (cenomanian-maastricht - K21-6), Liburnian sediments, foraminiferal limestones and transitional sediments (Upper paleocene , lower and middle eocene - Pc, E1, 2) and Deluvial-proluvial sediments (a-dprQ2)/Soils: Swamp's gley, Rendzina on marl or soft limestone, Limestone's and dolomite's black soil,Rocky ground etc./ Vransko lake is the lowest point of Ravni Kotari plate; geomorphologicaly the lake is cryptodepression; the lake area is 30 km2; depth is about 5 m, depending on water level; the largest natural lake in Croatia; formed by transgression of sea after the last glacial.

4.2 Quality and importance

- Information on birds population sizes was provided by the Institute for Ornithology (Zavod za ornitologiju, 2013). Numbers presented refer to estimations or exact data based as much as possible on recent surveys (data provided by the Institute staff and their field-work associates) - Large reedbed in SPA Vransko jezero i Jasen is the only breeding site on the coast of Croatia of Ardea purpurea (4% of national breeding population) and Phalacrocorax pygmaeus (73% of national breeding population); it also holds 8% of national breeding population of Porzana pusilla, 6,7% of Porzana porzana and 2,5% of Porzana parva; also 8,3% of Ixobrychus minutus and 2,5% of Botaurus stellaris - The lake Vransko jezero is, along with the Neretva Delta the most important stop-over and wintering site for migratory waterbirds in Mediterranean region of Croatia. The lake surface never freezes and with its plentitude of food and mild climate it represents a winter refuge for large populations of coots (Fulica atra)and 17 species of ducks (RIS, 2012) - The Lake Vransko Jezero is an important wintering site for the Coot (Fulica atra) with yearly numbers between 40,000 and 195,000 birds (1,6% - 7,8% of the The Mediterranean-Black Sea wintering population). Apart from the Coot, many ducks, grebes, cormorants and divers overwinter, so that total number of wintering waterbirds is always higher than 40,000 (RIS, 2012) - This area holds 36% of national wintering population of Phalacrocorax pygmaeus and 11% of Acrocephalus melanopogon - Out of 37 species of waders recorded for the area, 23 of them regularly use muddy shores and shallow flooded zone of the Vransko Jezero Lake as a resting place during autumn and spring migrations (RIS, 2012)

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

Agencija za zaštitu okoliša: CORINE Land Cover Hrvatska. Baza podataka CLC 2006 Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2010): Izvješće o monitoringu odabranih ptičjih vrsta i područja važnih za ptice u 2010. na području mediteranske i alpske biogeografske regije Hrvatske Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2011): Motrenje gnijezdeće populacije malih vranaca (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) na Vranskom jezeru od 2004. - 2011. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2011): Motrenje gnijezdeće populacije čaplji danguba (Ardea purpurea) na Vranskom jezeru od 2004. - 2011. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2011): Motrenje zajednice ptica pjevica, kokošica, štijoki, gnjuraca i pataka u velikom tršćaku ornitološkog rezervata Vransko jezero od 2009. – 2011. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2011): Motrenje zimujuće populacije ptica velikog tršćaka u ornitološkom rezervatu Vransko jezero od 2007. - 2011. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2011): Motrenje zimujućih populacija lisaka, pataka i ostalih plivarica na Vranskom jezeru od zime 2004/05. - 2010/11. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2012): Izviješće o monitoringu ptica u Parku prirode Vransko jezero 2010.-2011. Izvješće za Javnu ustanovu Park prirode Vransko jezero Radović, D., Kralj, J., Tutiš, V., Radović, J. i Topić, R. (2005): Nacionalna ekološka mreža – Važna područja za ptice u Hrvatskoj. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Tutiš, V., Kralj, J., Radović, D., Ćiković, D. i Barišić, S. (2013): Crvena knjiga ptica Republike Hrvatske. Ministarstvo zaštite okoliša i prirode, Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Zavod za ornitologiju HAZU (2004): Ornitofauna Parka park Vransko jezero. Studija. Javna ustanova Park prirode Vransko jezero Zavod za ornitologiju (Sanja Barišić, Davor Ćiković, Jelena Kralj, Goran Sušić,Vesna Tutiš), Dragan Radović, Ivan Budinski, Robert Crnković, Antun Delić, Dubravko Dender, Vlatka Dumbović, Ivan Darko Grlica, Bariša Ilić, Luka Jurinović, Davor Krnjeta, Krešimir Leskovar, Duje Lisičić, Ivica Lolić, Gordan Lukač. Kristijan Mandić, Krešimir Mikulić, Tibor Mikuska, Gvido Piasevoli, Andrej Radalj, Zlatko Ružanović, Vlatka Šćetarić, Mirko Šetina, Adrian Tomik (2013): Procjene brojnosti za SPA područja. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb
Ramsar Information Sheet Vransko Lake (2012):


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

No information provided

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

No information provided



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Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)