Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Kvarnerski otoci

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Environment and Energy - IENC

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2013-07
National legal reference of SPA designationRegulation on ecological network and responsible public institutions for site management, Official Gazette 80/19


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name
HR03Jadranska Hrvatska

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Mediterranean (0.00 %) Marine Mediterranean (0.00 %)


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3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA229Alcedo atthis          DD 
BA109Alectoris graeca    400  800   
BA255Anthus campestris    1000  2000   
BA091Aquila chrysaetos     
BA021Botaurus stellaris          DD 
BA215Bubo bubo    60  90   
BA133Burhinus oedicnemus    60  120   
BA243Calandrella brachydactyla    30  100   
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus    400  700   
BA080Circaetus gallicus    12  15   
BA082Circus cyaneus    50  70   
BA236Dryocopus martius     
BA026Egretta garzetta          DD 
BA379Emberiza hortulana           
BA101Falco biarmicus    -1  -1    DD         
BA098Falco columbarius     
BA100Falco eleonorae    -1  -1    DD         
BA095Falco naumanni    30  40   
BA103Falco peregrinus    10  14   
BA097Falco vespertinus          DD 
BA002Gavia arctica    250  350   
BA001Gavia stellata     
BA127Grus grus          DD 
BA078Gyps fulvus    110  130   
BA093Hieraaetus fasciatus    -1  -1    DD         
BA022Ixobrychus minutus    10   
BA022Ixobrychus minutus          DD 
BA338Lanius collurio    6000  8000   
BA339Lanius minor    10  20   
BA246Lullula arborea    400  700   
BA152Lymnocryptes minimus          DD 
BA072Pernis apivorus    10  12   
BA072Pernis apivorus          DD 
BA392Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii    350  400   
BA120Porzana parva          DD 
BA119Porzana porzana          DD 
BA118Rallus aquaticus          DD 
BA118Rallus aquaticus          DD 
BA195Sterna albifrons     
BA193Sterna hirundo    42  50   
BA191Sterna sandvicensis    120  200   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

This area comprises large North Adriatic islands (Cres, Krk, and Rab) and surrounding smaller islands. Numerous cliffs are the last nesting area of Griffon Vultures in Croatia and important nesting area for the other birds (birds of prey, Shags). Important habitat for vultures and raptors are extensive open and mixed landscapes (dry grasslands). The area includes several types of Mediterranean forests, scrubs and ponds. The site includes Natural monument Oak in Sv. Petar, two ornithological Special reserves Fojiška-Podpredošćica and Mali bok-Koromačna (cliffs on eastern part of island Cres - nesting area of Griffon Vultures), Special reserve of forest vegetation Glavotok and Košljun, ornithological Special reserves Glavine-Mala luka, botanical-zoological Special reserve Prvić and Grgurov kanal, Significant landscape Lopar, Special reserve of forest vegetation Dundo and Forest Park Komrčar. Lithostratigraphic units represented in this area are rudist limestones (cenomanian-maastricht - K21-6), fisch sediments (middle and upper eocene - E2, 3), dolomites and post sedimentary diagenetic breccia (upper albian, lower cenomanian - K16, K12), limestone and dolomite (lower Cretaceous - K1), liburnian sediments, foraminiferal limestones and transitional sediments (Upper paleocene, lower and middle eocene - Pc, E1, 2) etc. Soils: shallow and medium deep terra rossa, loessivized and typical deep terra rossa, rocky ground, limestone and dolomite black soil, brown soil on limestone, rendzina soils on dolomite and limestone etc. Islands were created by sea transgression after last glaciation before about 10 000 years, but coastal relief has mostly younger genesis; geomorphological characteristics is that almost all forms are extend in NW-SE direction; the area has many endo and exo karst formations; presence of processes of abrasion, and there are low shore caused by destruction and accumulation and the high and cliff rocky shoreline.

4.2 Quality and importance

- Information on birds population sizes was provided by the Institute for Ornithology (Zavod za ornitologiju, 2013). Numbers presented refer to estimations or exact data based as much as possible on recent surveys (data provided by the Institute staff and their field-work associates) - SPA Kvarnerski otoci is the only site in Croatia with breeding colonies of Gyps fulvus (100% of national population); due to active measures of protection, the population has stabilized during the last decade (Sušić, 2012) - SPA Kvarnerski otoci is the only site in Croatia with breeding colony of Falco naumanni (100% of national population); it was established recently, registered in 2010 and monitored since then (BIOM, 2012) - SPA Kvarnerski otoci contains 20% of national population of Aquila chrysaetos, 11% of Circaetus gallicus, 12% of Falco peregrines - SPA Kvarnerski otoci contains 50% of national population of Burhinus oedicnemus and 15% of Calandrella brachydactyla - SPA Kvarnerski otoci contains 22% of national population of Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii - SPA Kvarnerski otoci contains 20% of national breeding population of Sterna albifrons and 11% of Sterna hirundo - SPA Kvarnerski otoci contains 24% of national wintering population of Sterna sandvicensis and 12,5 % of Gavia arctica - There are indications based on surveys that SPA Kvarnerski otoci is potential breeding site of Hieraetus fasciatus, Falco eleonorae and Falco subbuteo; this should be clarified through future research (Sušić, G., Eko-centar Caput insulae, pers.comm.) - Large islands in the area contain a number of lakes and ponds that are used as stop-over sites by migratory waterbirds, including reedbed birds (Ixobrychus minutes, Botaurus stellaris, Porzana spp., Rallus aquaticus); wet grasslands on the Krk Island are used by migrating Grus grus (Radalj, A., Animalia, pers.comm. and photo documentation)

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Agencija za zaštitu okoliša: CORINE Land Cover Hrvatska. Baza podataka CLC 2006 Eko-centar Caput insulae (2009): Prijedlog važnih lokaliteta za ptice na području otoka Cresa kao dijela potencijalnog Natura 2000 područja „Kvarnerski otoci“. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Eko-centar Caput insulae (2012): Procjena ukupnog broja parova bjeloglavih supova koji gnijezde u ornitološkim rezervatima „Kruna“ i „Podokladi“ na otoku Cresu, “Kuntrep” na otoku Krku, “Otok Prvić”, te na otoku Plavniku u 2012.g. Izvješće za JU „Priroda“, Rijeka Griffon (2013): Procjena stanja populacije bjeloglavih supova na području ornitoloških rezervata na Cresu, Krku i Prviću, te na Plavniku u 2013.godini. Rijeka Hrvatsko ornitološko društvo (2012): Završno izvješće za monitoring Crvenokljune Čigre (Sterna hirundo) i Male Čigre (Sterna albifrons) na Savi kod Hruščice i Sjevernom dijelu Zadarskog arhipelaga tijekom 2012. Godine. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Mikulić, K., Budinski, I., Lucić, V., Katanović, I., Hudina T., Zec, M. (2014): Konačno izvješće za monitoring nacionalne populacije surog orla (Aquila chrysaetos). Izvješće za DZZP. Udruga BIOM, Zagreb 24 str. Mikulić K, Budinski I, Zec M (2014) Monitoring nacionalne populacije bjelonokte vjetruše (Falco naumanni). Konačni izvještaj za 2014. Udruga BIOM, Zagreb, 16 str. Izvješće za DZZP. Radović, D., Kralj, J., Tutiš, V., Radović, J. i Topić, R. (2005): Nacionalna ekološka mreža – Važna područja za ptice u Hrvatskoj. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Tutiš, V., Kralj, J., Radović, D., Ćiković, D. i Barišić, S. (2013): Crvena knjiga ptica Republike Hrvatske. Ministarstvo zaštite okoliša i prirode, Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Udruga „Animalia“ (2011): Istraživanja morskog vranca u sjevernom Jadranu – istraživanja u cilju očuvanja vrste sukladno Direktivi o pticama. Terenska istraživanja Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii 2011. Izvješće za Ministarstvo kulture, Zagreb Udruga za biološka istraživanja – BIOM (2012): Monitoring crvenokljune čigre (Sterna hirundo) i male čigre (Sterna albifrons) u 2012. Konačno izvješće. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Udruga za biološka istraživanja – BIOM (2012): Monitoring bjelonokte vjetruše (Falco naumanni) u 2012. Konačno izvješće. Izvješće za Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb Zavod za ornitologiju (Sanja Barišić, Davor Ćiković, Jelena Kralj, Goran Sušić,Vesna Tutiš), Dragan Radović, Ivan Budinski, Robert Crnković, Antun Delić, Dubravko Dender, Vlatka Dumbović, Ivan Darko Grlica, Bariša Ilić, Luka Jurinović, Davor Krnjeta, Krešimir Leskovar, Duje Lisičić, Ivica Lolić, Gordan Lukač. Kristijan Mandić, Krešimir Mikulić, Tibor Mikuska, Gvido Piasevoli, Andrej Radalj, Zlatko Ružanović, Vlatka Šćetarić, Mirko Šetina, Adrian Tomik (2013): Procjene brojnosti za SPA područja. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb


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6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

No, but in preparation



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Map delivered as PDF in electronic format (optional)