Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Gessi Bolognesi, Calanchi dell'Abbadessa

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Regione Emilia-Romagna - Direzione Generale Cura del territorio e dell'ambiente - Servizio Aree protette, foreste e sviluppo della montagna

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2009-09
National legal reference of SPA designationDeliberazione della Giunta Regionale dell'Emilia-Romagna n. 512 del 20 aprile 2009
Date site proposed as SCI:1995-06
Date site confirmed as SCI: No information provided
Date site designated as SAC:2019-03
National legal reference of SAC designation:DM 13/03/2019 - G.U. 79 del 03-04-2019


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]

No information provided

2.4 Sitelength [km] (optional):

No information provided

2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Continental (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
3130  info      1.63  0.00 
3140  info      1.29  0.00 
3270  info      14.81  0.00 
4030  info      2.26  0.00 
5130  info      55.98  0.00 
6110  info      9.37  0.00 
6210  info  X     294.33  0.00 
6220  info      152.6  0.00 
8210  info      12.01  0.00 
8240  info      0.4  0.00 
8310  info      12.54  0.00 
9180  info      0.31  0.00 
91AA  info      169.74  0.00 
91L0  info      26.8  0.00 
9260  info      14.29  0.00 
92A0  info      99.53  0.00 
9340  info      0.51  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA086Accipiter nisus          DD 
BA298Acrocephalus arundinaceus          DD 
BA168Actitis hypoleucos          DD 
BA324Aegithalos caudatus          DD 
BA247Alauda arvensis          DD 
BA229Alcedo atthis          DD 
BA053Anas platyrhynchos          DD 
BA255Anthus campestris          DD 
BA257Anthus pratensis          DD 
BA256Anthus trivialis          DD 
BA226Apus apus          DD 
BA228Apus melba          DD 
BA091Aquila chrysaetos          DD       
BA029Ardea purpurea          DD 
BA221Asio otus          DD 
BA218Athene noctua          DD 
I1092Austropotamobius pallipes          DD 
F1138Barbus meridionalis          DD 
F1137Barbus plebejus          DD 
A5357Bombina pachipus          DD 
BA215Bubo bubo          DD 
BA087Buteo buteo          DD 
M1352Canis lupus          DD       
BA224Caprimulgus europaeus          DD 
BA364Carduelis carduelis          DD 
BA363Carduelis chloris          DD 
I1088Cerambyx cerdo          DD 
BA335Certhia brachydactyla          DD 
BA031Ciconia ciconia          DD 
BA080Circaetus gallicus          DD 
BA081Circus aeruginosus          DD 
BA082Circus cyaneus          DD 
BA084Circus pygargus          DD 
F5304Cobitis bilineata          DD 
BA373Coccothraustes coccothraustes          DD 
BA208Columba palumbus          DD 
BA231Coracias garrulus          DD       
BA615Corvus cornix          DD 
BA347Corvus monedula          DD 
BA113Coturnix coturnix          DD 
BA212Cuculus canorus          DD 
BA253Delichon urbica          DD 
BA237Dendrocopos major          DD 
BA240Dendrocopos minor          DD 
BA377Emberiza cirlus          DD 
BA379Emberiza hortulana          DD 
R1220Emys orbicularis          DD 
I1074Eriogaster catax          DD 
BA269Erithacus rubecula          DD 
I6199Euplagia quadripunctaria          DD 
BA095Falco naumanni          DD 
BA103Falco peregrinus          DD 
BA099Falco subbuteo          DD 
BA096Falco tinnunculus          DD 
BA097Falco vespertinus          DD 
BA125Fulica atra          DD 
BA123Gallinula chloropus          DD 
BA342Garrulus glandarius          DD 
P4104Himantoglossum adriaticum          DD 
BA300Hippolais polyglotta          DD 
BA251Hirundo rustica          DD 
BA233Jynx torquilla          DD 
BA338Lanius collurio          DD 
BA341Lanius senator          DD 
I1083Lucanus cervus          DD 
BA246Lullula arborea          DD 
BA271Luscinia megarhynchos          DD 
BA230Merops apiaster          DD 
BA383Miliaria calandra          DD 
BA073Milvus migrans          DD 
BA074Milvus milvus          DD 
M1310Miniopterus schreibersii          DD 
BA262Motacilla alba          DD 
BA260Motacilla flava          DD 
BA319Muscicapa striata          DD 
M1323Myotis bechsteinii          DD 
M1307Myotis blythii          DD 
M1321Myotis emarginatus          DD 
M1324Myotis myotis          DD 
BA023Nycticorax nycticorax          DD 
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe          DD 
BA337Oriolus oriolus          DD 
BA214Otus scops          DD 
BA094Pandion haliaetus          DD 
BA328Parus ater          DD 
BA329Parus caeruleus          DD 
BA330Parus major          DD 
BA325Parus palustris          DD 
BA621Passer italiae          DD 
BA356Passer montanus          DD 
BA072Pernis apivorus          DD 
BA273Phoenicurus ochruros          DD 
BA274Phoenicurus phoenicurus          DD 
BA313Phylloscopus bonelli          DD 
BA315Phylloscopus collybita          DD 
BA314Phylloscopus sibilatrix          DD 
BA343Pica pica          DD 
BA235Picus viridis          DD 
F5962Protochondrostoma genei          DD 
BA318Regulus ignicapillus          DD 
BA317Regulus regulus          DD 
M1305Rhinolophus euryale          DD 
M1304Rhinolophus ferrumequinum          DD 
M1303Rhinolophus hipposideros          DD 
BA249Riparia riparia          DD 
BA276Saxicola torquata          DD 
BA361Serinus serinus          DD 
BA332Sitta europaea          DD 
BA209Streptopelia decaocto          DD 
BA210Streptopelia turtur          DD 
BA219Strix aluco          DD 
BA351Sturnus vulgaris          DD 
BA311Sylvia atricapilla          DD 
BA304Sylvia cantillans          DD 
BA309Sylvia communis          DD 
BA305Sylvia melanocephala          DD 
F5331Telestes muticellus          DD 
A1167Triturus carnifex          DD 
BA265Troglodytes troglodytes          DD 
BA286Turdus iliacus          DD 
BA283Turdus merula          DD 
BA285Turdus philomelos          DD 
BA284Turdus pilaris          DD 
BA287Turdus viscivorus          DD 
BA213Tyto alba          DD 
BA232Upupa epops          DD 
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
Anacamptis pyramidalis                   
2432Anguis fragilis                   
2361Bufo bufo                   
1201Bufo viridis                   
2437Chalcides chalcides                   
1284Coluber viridiflavus                   
2452Coronella girondica                   
Dolichopoda sp.                   
1281Elaphe longissima                   
2615Eliomys quercinus                   
1327Eptesicus serotinus                   
5656Gobio gobio                   
5358Hyla intermedia                   
5365Hypsugo savii                   
1344Hystrix cristata                   
Iolana iolas                   
Isopyrum thalictroides                   
5179Lacerta bilineata                   
Lissotriton vulgaris                   
1341Muscardinus avellanarius                   
1314Myotis daubentonii                   
1322Myotis nattereri                   
2469Natrix natrix                   
1292Natrix tessellata                   
Niphargus spp.                   
1312Nyctalus noctula                   
Ononis masquillierii                   
Orchis coriophora                   
5777Padogobius martensii                   
2016Pipistrellus kuhlii                   
1309Pipistrellus pipistrellus                   
1326Plecotus auritus                   
1329Plecotus austriacus                   
1256Podarcis muralis                   
1250Podarcis sicula                   
Porrhomma spipolae                   
1209Rana dalmatina                   
1210Rana esculenta                     
1849Ruscus aculeatus                     
2603Suncus etruscus                   
2471Vipera aspis                   
1053Zerynthia polyxena                   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Affioramenti gessosi nella prima collina bolognese caratterizzati da doline, inghiottitoi e grotte (Grotta della Spipola, la più grande grotta italiana nei gessi). Fascia calanchiva in gran parte su argille scagliose. Boschi mesofili, xero-termofili, radure e pratelli xerici.

4.2 Quality and importance

Specie vegetali CORINE appendice K : Orchis coriophora. Specie animali: Coronella girondica, specie presente con distribuzione altamente frammentata lungo la fascia medio-montana e collinare. Specializzata ad habitat xerici. Scarse conoscenze sulla distribuzione ed ecologia di popolazione.Importantissime colonie di Rhinolophus spp., Myotis spp. e Miniopterus schreibersi.Nidificazione delle specie ornitiche degli ambienti calanchivi (in particolare Circus pygargus). Ricchezza ittica dei torrenti.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.4 Ownership (optional)

No information provided

4.5 Documentation (optional)

No information provided


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level (optional):

Code Cover [%]

5.2 Relation of the described site with other sites (optional):

Designated at national or regional level:

Type code Site name Type Cover [%]
IT04Parco Regionale Gessi Bolognesi e Calanchi dell'Abbadessa*87.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

No information provided


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:ENTE GESTORE: Ente di Gestione per i Parchi e la Biodiversità Emilia orientale

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Piani di Gestione del sito IT4050001 - Gessi Bolognesi, Calanchi dell'Abbadessa

No, but in preparation

6.3 Conservation measures (optional)

Le Misure Specifiche di Conservazione sono consultabili alla pagina web del sito:



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