Database release:

For Special Protection Areas (SPA),
Proposed Sites for Community Importance (pSCI),
Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and
for Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)



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1.1 Type


1.2 Site code


1.3 Site name

Duinen Schiermonnikoog

1.4 First Compilation date


1.5 Update date


1.6 Respondent:

Name/Organisation:Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality - Department Nature & Biodiversity

1.7 Site indication and designation / classification dates

Date site classified as SPA:2000-03
National legal reference of SPA designation
Date site proposed as SCI:2002-08
Date site confirmed as SCI:2004-12
Date site designated as SAC:2009-02
National legal reference of SAC designation:
Explanation(s):Merge of SPA NL3009006 Duinen Schiermonnikoog and SCI NL2003058 Duinen SchiermonnikoogUntil 2007 SPA NL3009006 Duinen Schiermonnikoog was part of SPA NL9802001 Waddeneilanden, Noordzeekustzone, Breebaart


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2.1 Site-centre location [decimal degrees]:


2.2 Area [ha]


2.3 Marine area [%]


2.4 Sitelength [km]:


2.5 Administrative region code and name

NUTS level 2 code Region Name

2.6 Biogeographical Region(s)

Atlantic (100.00 %)


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3.1 Habitat types present on the site and assessment for them

Annex I Habitat types Site assessment
Code PF NP Cover [ha] Cave [number] Data quality A|B|C|D A|B|C
      RepresentativityRelative SurfaceConservationGlobal
1310  info      5.4  0.00 
1330  info      35  0.00 
2120  info      12  0.00 
2130  info      117  0.00 
2160  info      80  0.00 
2170  info      67  0.00 
2180  info      95  0.00 
2190  info      168  0.00 
6410  info      5.1  0.00 
  • PF: for the habitat types that can have a non-priority as well as a priority form (6210, 7130, 9430) enter "X" in the column PF to indicate the priority form.
  • NP: in case that a habitat type no longer exists in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Cover: decimal values can be entered
  • Caves: for habitat types 8310, 8330 (caves) enter the number of caves if estimated surface is not available.
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation)

3.2 Species referred to in Article 4 of Directive 2009/147/EC and listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43/EEC and site evaluation for them

Species Population in the site Site assessment
G Code Scientific Name S NP T Size Unit Cat. D.qual. A|B|C|D A|B|C
      MinMax  Pop.Con.Iso.Glo.
BA222Asio flammeus     
BA021Botaurus stellaris     
BA081Circus aeruginosus    26  26   
BA082Circus cyaneus     
P1903Liparis loeselii    51  500   
BA277Oenanthe oenanthe    22  22   
BA275Saxicola rubetra     
BA063Somateria mollissima    200  200   
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, I = Invertebrates, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Type: p = permanent, r = reproducing, c = concentration, w = wintering (for plant and non-migratory species use permanent)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the Standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting (see reference portal)
  • Abundance categories (Cat.): C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present - to fill if data are deficient (DD) or in addition to population size information
  • Data quality: G = 'Good' (e.g. based on surveys); M = 'Moderate' (e.g. based on partial data with some extrapolation); P = 'Poor' (e.g. rough estimation); VP = 'Very poor' (use this category only, if not even a rough estimation of the population size can be made, in this case the fields for population size can remain empty, but the field "Abundance categories" has to be filled in)

3.3 Other important species of flora and fauna (optional)


Population in the site


Group CODE Scientific Name S NP Size Unit Cat. Species Annex Other categories
     MinMax C|R|V|PIVVABCD
  • Group: A = Amphibians, B = Birds, F = Fish, Fu = Fungi, I = Invertebrates, L = Lichens, M = Mammals, P = Plants, R = Reptiles
  • CODE: for Birds, Annex IV and V species the code as provided in the reference portal should be used in addition to the scientific name
  • S: in case that the data on species are sensitive and therefore have to be blocked for any public access enter: yes
  • NP: in case that a species is no longer present in the site enter: x (optional)
  • Unit: i = individuals, p = pairs or other units according to the standard list of population units and codes in accordance with Article 12 and 17 reporting, (see reference portal)
  • Cat.: Abundance categories: C = common, R = rare, V = very rare, P = present
  • Motivation categories: IV, V: Annex Species (Habitats Directive), A: National Red List data; B: Endemics; C: International Conventions; D: other reasons


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4.1 General site character

Habitat class % Cover

Total Habitat Cover


Other Site Characteristics

Vast dune area with dry, shifting and humid locations with a big variety of plant species. The adjacent salt marshes are included in the Waddenzee site (NL1000001), the beaches in Noordzeekustzone (NL9802001)

4.2 Quality and importance

One of the ten most important sites for the habitat types Fixed dunes with herbaceous vegetation ("grey dunes"; 2130). One of the most valuable dune-areas of Holland. Very important site for embryonic shifting dunes, white dunes, dunes with Salix repens and humid dune slacks. Important site for decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum. Very important for birds of dunes, reedlands and forests and as roost for many migrating birds.

4.3 Threats, pressures and activities with impacts on the site

The most important impacts and activities with high effect on the site

Negative Impacts
RankThreats and pressures [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]
Positive Impacts
RankActivities, management [code]Pollution (optional) [code]inside/outside [i|o|b]

Rank: H = high, M = medium, L = low
Pollution: N = Nitrogen input, P = Phosphor/Phosphate input, A = Acid input/acidification,
T = toxic inorganic chemicals, O = toxic organic chemicals, X = Mixed pollutions
i = inside, o = outside, b = both

4.5 Documentation

Asmuth, J.R. von & M. Tolman (1996). Vegetatiekartering Schiermonnikoog 1992 - Rapportage en ecologische interpretatie. Rapport RWS, Meetkundige Dienst, afdeling GAT, 61 pp + kaarten. (R-0532).Bakker, J. & G. Allersma (1979). Beweiding op de Oosterkwelder van Schiermonnikoog. Waddenbulletin 14: 146-156. (006010).Bakker, J.P. & J.C.Ruyter (1981). Effects of five years grazing om a salt-marsh vegetation. Vegetatio 44: 81-100. (006007).Bakker, J.P. (). Effecten van begrazing op de vegetatie van de Oosterkwelderop Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur 85:41-46. (003835).Bakker, J.P. (1978). Changes in a salt-marsh vegetation as a result of grazing and mowing-a five-year study of permanent plots. Vegetatio 38: 77-87. (003830).Bakker, J.P. (1985). The impact of grazing on plant communities, plant populations and soil conditions on salt marshes. Vegetatio 62: 391-398. (005966).Bakker, J.P. (1989). Nature management by grazing and cutting. Proefschrift R.U. Groningen. Kluwer Acasemic Publishers, Dordrecht. (003836).Bakker, J.P., B.F. van Tooren & J. de Vlas (1993). Uitbreiding begrazing van de Oosterkwelder op Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur X(3): 118-122.Bakker, J.P., P. Esselink, R. van der Wal & K.S. Dijkema (1997). Options for restoration and management of coastal salt marshes in Europe. In:K.M. Urbanska, N.R. Webb & _P.J. Edwards (eds.) Restoration ecology and sustainable development. Cambridge University Press: 286-322. (008244).Blom, B.N. (1974). Verslag van de vakgroep Plantensystematiek over de voor- en zomerkampen op Schiermonnikoog in de jaren 1972 en 1973. . (R-0211).Bodewitz, E.J. (1988). De bostypen van Schiermonnikoog en Vlieland. Doctoraal verslag 88-05 Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen Vakgroep Bosteelt en Bosecologie. (R-0080).Grootjans, A.P., E.J. Lammerts & F. van Beusekom (1995). Kalkrijke duinvalleien op de Waddeneilanden. Ecologie en regeneratiemogelijkheden. KNNV, Utrecht.Grootjans, A.P., P.Hendriksma, M. Engelmoer & V. Westhoff (1988). Vegetation dynamics in a wet dune slack 1: rare species decline on the Waddenisland of Schiermonnikoog in the Netherlands. Acta Bot. Neerl. 37: 265-278. (006829).Grootjans, A.P.,P.S. Hartog, L.F.M. Fresco & H. Esselink (1991). Succession and fluctuation in a wet dune slack in relation to hydrological changes. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 545-554. (006161).Hartog, C. den (1952). Plantensociologische waarnemingen op Schiermonnikoog. Kruipnieuws 14 (2) : 2-25. (000352).Hartog, C. den (1953). Secundaire duinvalleien op Schiermonnikoog. Amoeba 29: 59-63.Holkema, F. (1870). De plantengroei der Nederlandsche Noordzee-eilanden: Texel, Vlieland, Terschelling, Ameland, Schiermonnikoog en Rottum. Eene bijdrage tot de Flora van Nederland. Scheltema & Holkema, Amsterdam, 268 p.. (B-0088).Kers, A.S., H.J. van Wijnen & G. Walbrecht (1998). Kleidikte, opslibbing en vegetatie Oosterkwelder Schiermonnikoog. Rapport Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Laboratorium voor Plantenecologie, 36 pp + bijl.Kers, A.S. (1995). Vegetatiekartering Nationaal Park Schiermonnikoog, tussen Reddingsweg en Derde Slenk 1993-1994. Rapport Vereniging Natuurmonumenten, 107 pp + bijl.Kloos, A.W. (1926). Verslag van een excursie gehouden op Schiermonnikoog op 28 Aug. 1926 en volgende dagen. Nederl. Kruidk. Arch. 36: 7-17.Leeuw, J. de, W. deMunck, H. Olff & J.P. Bakker (1993). Does zonation reflect the succession of salt-marsh vegetation A comparison of an estuarine and a coastal bar island marsh in the netherlands. Acta Botanica Neerl. 42: 435-445. (005035).Looijen, R.C. & J.P. Bakker (1987). Utilization of different salt-marsh plant communities by cattle and geese. In: A.H.L. huiskes, C.W.P.M. Blom & J. Rozema (eds.), vegetation between land and sea, Dr. W. Junk Pubishers, Dordrecht: 52-64. (005992).Moerman, H.J. (1926). Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur 30: 267-277.Olff, H., J. de Leeuw, J.P. Bakker, R.J. Platerink & H.J. van Wijnen & W. de Munck (1997). Vegetation succesionand herbivory in a salt marsh: changes induced by sea level rise and silt deposition along an elevational gradient. Journal of Ecology 85: 799-814. (005229).Olff, H., J. Huisman & B. van Tooren (1993). Species dynamics and nutrient accumulation during early succession in coastal sand dunes. Journal of Ecology 81: 693-706.Olff, H., J.P. Bakker & L.F.M. Fresco (1988). The effect of fluctuations in tidal inundation frequency ona salt-marsh vegetation. Vegetatio 78: 13-19. (005991).Reitsma, D.T. & J.P. Bakker (1986). Landgebruik op Schiermonnikoog, vroeger en nu. Waddenbulletin21: 94-100.Tooren, B.F. van, H. Schat & S.J. ter Borg (1983). Succession and fluctuation in the vegetation of a Dutch Beach PLAin. Vegetatio 53: 139-151.Tooren, B.F. van, L.M.L. Zonneveld, P.J. Keizer & J. Huisman (1993). Ontwikkeling en beheer van de vegetatie op de Strandvlakte van Schiermonnikoog. De Levende Natuur 94 (3): 112-117.Veen, A. van der, A.P. Grootjans, J. de Jong & J. Rozeman (1997). Reconstruction of an interrupted primary beach plain succession using a Geographical Information System. Journal of Coastal Conservation 3: 71-78.Wams, T.J. & F. Wemelsfelder (1984). Grondwaterkwaliteit en vegetatie op Schiermonnikoog. Doctoraal verslag Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Laboratorium voor Plantenoecologie, 74 pp.+ bijlagen. (R-0614).Westhoff, V. & M.F. van Oosten (1991). De plantengroei van de Waddeneilanden. Stichting KNNV, Utrecht.Westhoff, V. (1954). Landschap en Plantengroei van Schiermonnikoog. Natuur en Techniek 22 (5/6): 1-10. (001686).Westhoff, V. (1994). Schiermonnikoog. In: Hommel, P.W.F.M. & M.A.P. Horsthuis. Excursieverslagen 1992. Plantensociologische Kring Nederland, pp 52-53.Wijnen, H.J. van & J.P. Bakker (1997). Nitrogren accumulation and plant species replacement in three salt marsh systems in the Wadden Sea. Journal of Coastal Conservation 3: 19-26. (005034).Wijnen, H.J. van , H.J.Bakker & Y. de Vries (1997). Twenty years of salt marsh succession on a Dutch coastal barrier island. Journal of Coastal Conservation 3: 9-18. (005033).Zonneveld, L.M.L., E.H. Kloosterman & B.M. van Hees (1990). Schiermonnikoog vegetatiekaart. Toelichting bruikbaarheid voor het beheer. Rijkswaterstaat Meetkundige Dienst, Delft / LB&P, Beilen.; SOVON & CBS (2006) Trends van vogels in het Nederlandse Natura 2000 netwerk. SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland, Beek-Ubbergen


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5.1 Designation types at national and regional level:

Code Cover [%]

Designated at international level:

Type Site name Type Cover [%]
ramsarWaddeneilanden en Noordzeekustzone=100.00

5.3 Site designation (optional)

National Park.


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6.1 Body(ies) responsible for the site management:

Organisation:Province of Fryslân

6.2 Management Plan(s):

An actual management plan does exist:

Yes Name: Natura 2000-beheerplan Schiermonnikoog (6)

No, but in preparation



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